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Chinese History - Southern and Northern Dynasties 南北朝 (300~600)

Periods of Chinese History
The Southern and Northern Dynasties Nanbeichao 南北朝 (300~600) is a group of about 30 dynasties that ruled over China between ca. 300 and 600 CE. There are several categories in which these dynasties are divided, the most important of which are the Southern Dynasties 南朝 (420~589), the Northern Dynasties 北朝 (386-581), the Sixteen Barbarian States 十六國 (300~430), and the Six Dynasties 六朝 (222-589). The last term included the Wu empire 吳 (222-280), one of the Three Kingdoms 三國 (220-280) and the first empire whose capital was Jiankang 建康 or Jianye 建業 (modern Nanjing 南京, Jiangsu). The two others of the Three Kingdoms are not counted among the Southern and Northern Dynasties. The next "southern dynasty" was the Eastern Jin 東晉 (317-420), ruling from Jiankang over southern China, while the north was occupied by the Sixteen States that were mostly founded by non-Chinese chieftains. These are normally not acknowledged as "righteous" dynasties. After the demise of the Jin, southern China was ruled by four successive houses, the Southern Dynasties. The Northern Wei 北魏 (386-534), founded by the people of the Xianbei 鮮卑, unified northern China. Along with the four successor states, they are called the Northern Dynasties. After almost four hundred centuries of division China was reunited by the Sui dynasty 隋 (581-618) that is normally seen as a direct successor of the Northern Dynasties.
The long centuries of division under different policital and social conditions created a clear distinction of northern China as a poor country with a crude culture of a warrior elite, and southern China as a rich and culturally advanced country under the leadership of an educated elite.

Three Kingdoms 三國 220-280
Jin Dynasty 晉 265-420
Sixteen Barbarian Kingdoms 五胡十六國 300~439
Southern Dynasties 南朝: Liu-Song 劉宋, (Nan-)Qi (南)齊, Liang 梁, Chen 陳 420-589
Six Dynasties 六朝: Wu 吳, Dongjin 東晉, Liu-Song 劉宋, (Nan-)Qi (南)齊, Liang 梁, Chen 陳 222-589
Northern Dynasties 北朝: Beiwei 北魏, Dongwei 東魏, Xiwei 西魏, Beiqi 北齊, Beizhou 北周 386-581
Sui Dynasty 隋 581-618
southSichuanShanxi, HebeiShaanxiGansu
吳 Wu 蜀漢 Shu-Han 曹魏 Cao-Wei
西晉 Western Jin
Eastern Jin
前趙 Former Zhao 前涼 Former Liang
後趙 Later Zhao [代 Dai]
前燕 Former Yan 前秦 Former Qin
Western Yan]
Later Yan
後秦 Later Qin 後涼 Later Liang [仇池 Qiuchi]
Southern Yan
Northern Yan
Western Qin

Southern Liang
Western Liang
Northern Liang
北魏 Northern Wei
(Southern) Qi

東魏 Eastern Wei 西魏 Western Wei

(北周)北齊 Northern Qi 北周 Northern Zhou
隋 Sui

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October 31, 2011 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail

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