An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art

Terms and Events in Chinese History

The following table includes key terms of event history, and a wide range of special terms used in the fields of administrative history, economic history, military history, law and jurisdiction, the calendar, education and scholarship, and religion.

The terms and keywords are arranged alphabetically (Pinyin system, and some English terms), but of course they can also be sought for by the search funtion.

A [top]
academies see shuyuan 書院
anchashi 按察使 surveillance commissioner
anfushi 安撫使 pacification commissioner
B [top]
ba hegemonial lord
Bailian School 白蓮教 see White Lotus Sect
bailiang 白糧 metropolitan tribute grain
baguwen 八股文 eight-legged essay
banks, traditional banking see qianzhuang 錢莊 and piaohao 票號
Banner land see qidi 旗地
baochao 寶鈔 see paper money
baojia 保甲 communal self-defense system
baojiafa 保甲法 see baojia 保甲
baomafa 保馬法 horse protection law (Wang Anshi reforms)
baqi 八旗 Eight Banners (Qing)
ba wang zhi luan 八王之亂 Rebellion of the Eight Princes (Jin period)
bo 伯 earl, see wujue 五爵
boshi 博士 erudite, "professor"
Boxer Uprising 1900
buqu 部曲
buzhengshi 布政使 provincial administration commissioner
C [top]
caifangshi 採訪使 investigation commissioner
castration see gong
caoliang 漕糧 tribute grain
caoyun 漕運 transport of tribute grain
caoyunsi 漕運司 see zhuanyunshi 轉運使
caoyun zongdu 漕運總督 Director-general of grain transport
censor see yushi dafu 御史大夫
Censorate see Yushitai 衘史臺
Chimei 赤眉 Red Eyebrows, name of a peasant uprising (Han/Xin)
changcheng 長城 Great Wall
changwei 廠衛 Depots and Brocade Guards
chengxiang 丞相 Counsellor-in-chief
chi beating with the light stick
circuit see lu
cishi 刺史 regional inspector
concubines see Female officials
Confucian Classics
Counsellor-in-chief see chengxiang 丞相
corvée labour see yaoyi 徭役
D [top]
dabi 大辟 death penalty, see si
dafu 大夫 grand master (Zhou); see also jiu qing 九卿
dalisi 大理寺
dao-fu 道府 = daoyuan 道員 + zhifu 知府
daotai 道臺 circuit intendant
daoyuan 道員 see daotai 道臺
dayunhe 大運河 see Grand Canal
death penalty see si
diandang 典當 pawnshop
diding 地丁 unified field-and-poll tax, see also tanding rumu 攤丁入畝
diding heyi 地丁合一 see tanding rumu 攤丁入畝
dingdai 頂戴 hat button as a marker of rank (Qing)
dingfu 丁賦 service tax
donglin dang 東林黨 Donglin Faction
du caoyun shisi 都漕運使司 see zhuanyunshi 轉運使
duchayuan 都察院 see Yushitai 衘史臺
dudie 度牒 tax-exemption certificate (for the clergy)
dudu 都督 commander-in-chief
duhu 都護 protector-general
duliangheng 度量衡 weights and measures
Dunhuang 敦煌 westernmost commandery of ancient China
duyushi 都御史 see yushi dafu 御史大夫
E [top]
Eight Banners see baqi 八旗
eight-legged essay see baguwen 八股文
equal-field system see juntian zhi 均田制
examination system (kejuzhi 科舉制)
exile see liu
F [top]
fangtianfa 方田法 see junshuifa 均税法
fangyushi 防禦使 defense commissioner
fei cutting off a foot as punishment
feiqian 飛錢 bills of exchange (Tang)
female officials see nüguan 女官
fenglu 俸祿 salary of state officials
feudal lords see zhuhou 諸侯
fubing 府兵
fushe 復社 Revival Society, a literary society (Ming)
fuyi 賦役 taxation methods
G [top]
gaitu guiliu 改土歸流 abolition of indirect rule by native chieftains
gong 公 duke, see wujue 五爵
gong penal castration
gongsheng 貢生 tribute student
gongxietian 公廨田 "office fields" for covering administrative expenses (Sui and Tang)
Grand Canal or Imperial Canal (dayunhe 大運河)
guanchashi 觀察使 surveillance commissioner
guanglu dafu 光祿大夫
guanglu xun 光祿勛
guanzi 關子 a kind of paper money (Song)
guozijian 國子監 Directorate of Education
H [top]
Hanlinyuan 翰林院 Hanlin Academy
haoxian 耗羨 transport-loss surcharge
hedao zongdu 河道總督 director-general of the Grand Canal
horse administration see mazheng 馬政
hou 候 marquis, see wujue 五爵
household tax system see hudiao zhi 戶調制
hualing 花翎 peacock feather as a marker of rank (Qing)
huangce 黃冊 the yellow registers
Huanghe 黄河 Yellow River
huangji 黃籍 yellow household registers
huangjin qiyi 黃巾起義 Yellow Turban uprising
huangshicheng 皇史宬 Imperial Archives
huanqian 圜錢 round coins (Zhanguo and Qin)
hubu 戶部 Ministry of Revenue
hudeng zhi 戶等制 household classification system
hudiao zhi 戶調制 household tax system
huiguan 會館 guild hall
huizi 會子 a kind of paper money (Song)
huji 戶籍 household registers
I [top]
Ili border region in the far west
Imperial Canal, see Grand Canal
J [top]
jiansheng university student
jiangbingfa 將兵法 see zhijiangfa 置將法
jiaoshou 教授 teacher
jiaozi 交子 paper money (Song)
jiawu zhangzheng 甲午戰爭 First Chinese-Japanese War 1895
jiedushi 節度使 military commissioner
jimi 羈縻 indirect rule over native border territories
jinglüeshi 經略使 regulatory commissioner
jingtian zhi 井田制 well-field system
jinshi 進士 "presented scholar", title awarded to graduates of the metropolitan and palace examinations
jinyiwei 錦衣衛 Brocade Guards, see changwei 廠衛
jiupin 九品 nine ranks of state officials
jiupin huntong 九品混通 see hudiaozhi
jiupin xiangtong 九品相通 see hudiaozhi
jiuqing 九卿 Nine Chamberlains
juanmian 蠲免 tax remissions or waivers
junjichu 軍機處 Council of State
junshufa 均輸法 balanced-delivery law (Wang Anshi reforms)
junshuifa 均税法 equal-tax law (Wang Anshi reforms)
juntian zhi 均田制 equal-field system
junxiang 軍餉 military pay
juren 舉人 "recommendee", title awarded to graduates of prefectural or provincial examinations
K [top]
kejuzhi 科舉制 see examination system
keze 科則 classification system for land tax
kemu 科目 types of examinations, see also examination system
king see wujue 五爵
kongqueling 孔雀翎 peacock feather as a marker of rank (Qing)
koufu 口賦 see suanfu 算賦
kuping tael 庫平 government standard weight for silver money (Qing)
L [top]
lanling 藍翎 pheasant feather as a marker of rank (Qing)
liangshuifa 兩稅法 twice-taxation system
lianzuofa 連坐法 collective liability
lifanyuan 理藩院 Court of Colonial Affairs
lijia 里甲 rural self-administration system
ling district magistrate or institutional director
liu exile
liubu 六部 XXX the Six Ministries
lougui 陋規 surcharge, "customary fee"
lu circuit
Lulin 綠林 peasant uprising under Wang Mang, see Red Eyebrows
lutian 祿田 see zhitian 職田
lüyingbing 綠營兵 Green Standard Troops (Qing)
M [top]
magistrate see ling 令 or zhixian
mazheng 馬政 horse administration
menxiasheng 門下省 the Chancellery (Han to Song)
mianhangfa 免行法 see shiyifa 市易法
mianyifa 免役法 see muyifa 募役法
mingjing 明經 classicist, expert in the Confucian Classics
mingtang 明堂 main ceremonial hall of the imperial palace
Ministry of Revenue see hubu 戶部
menxiasheng 門下省
mo penal tattooing
money see standard cash,
paper money,
money of the Qing period
mu regional governor
muyifa 募役法 labour recruitment law (Wang Anshi reforms)
N [top]
nan 男 baron, see wujue 五爵
neige 内閣 Grand Secretariat
neiwufu 内務府 XXX Imperial Household Administration
nongtian shuili fa 農田水利法 see shuilifa 水利法
nüguan 女官 see female officials
P [top]
palace memorial system see zouzhe
paper money
pawnshops see diandang 典當
piaohao 票號 the Shanxi Banks
pingdi pingtiao 平糴 平糶 price regulation of grain
pingmifa 平米法 field tax adjustment method
pingyu 平餘 surcharge
poll tax see suanfu 算賦
Prime Minister see chengxiang 丞相
prince see wujue 五爵
protectorate see duhu 都護
Q [top]
qianyin 錢引 paper money (Song)
qianzhuang 錢莊 banks
qidi 旗地 Banner land
qing minister (Zhou), see also jiu qing 九卿
qing shi dafu 卿士大夫 ministers, grand masters, and servicemen (Zhou)
qingmiaofa 青苗法 green-sprouts law (Wang Anshi reforms)
R [top]
Red Turbans
rouxing 肉刑, penal mutilation see wuxing 五刑
S [top]
sangong 三公 the Three Dukes
sanshefa 三舍法 law on the three colleges (Wang Anshi reforms)
sansheng 三省 see shangshusheng 尚書省,
zhongshusheng 中書省,
menxiasheng 門下省
sanxiang 三餉 extraordinary taxes for war finance (late Ming)
sanzhang zhi 三長制 "three-heads system" for household registration (Northern Wei to Tang)
sanzu 三族 the extinction of three generations
she 赦, shemian 赦免 amnesty from punishment
shangshusheng 尚書省 Department of State Affairs
shecang 社倉 community granaries
shengyuan 生員 student obtaining a goventment-sponsored scholarship and a college place
shi serviceman (Zhou); "scholar"
shiyifa 市易法 market exchange law (Wang Anshi reforms)
shiwei 侍衛 imperial guardsman
shuilifa 水利法 hydraulic works law (Wang Anshi reforms)
shumishi 樞密使 see shumiyuan
shumiyuan 樞密院 Bureau of Military Affairs
shuyuan 書院 academy
shuzui 贖罪 buying redemption from punishment
si death penalty
sichou zhi lu 絲綢之路 see Silk Road
Silk Road
silver ingots as money
single-whip method of taxation see yitiaobian fa 一條鞭法
suanfu 算賦 poll tax
sui traditional lunar age
sycee see silver ingots
T [top]
taichang 太常
taishou 太守 commandery governor
taiwei 太尉 Defender-in-chief
taixue 太學 National University
tanding rumu 攤丁入畝 fusion of the poll tax with the field tax
Taoism see Daoism
tattooing see mo
taxes see diding 地丁,
dingfu 丁賦,
hudiao zhi 戶調制,
liangshui fa 兩稅法,
suanfu 算賦,
yitiaobian fa 一條鞭法,
zuyongdiao zhi 租庸調制
tidu xuezheng 提督學政 provincial educational commissioner
Thirteen Classics
tribute grain see caoliang 漕糧
tu penal servitude
tuntian 屯田 military agro-colonies
tusi 土司 native chieftain
W [top]
Wang Anshi, reforms of
wanli changcheng 萬里長城 see Great Wall
weights and measures
well-field system see jingtian zhi 井田制
wenyin 紋銀 see silver ingots
White Lotus Sect (Bailianjiao 白蓮教)
wu ba 五霸 the five hegemonial lords
Wu-Chu qiguo zhi luan 吳楚七國之亂 see Rebellion of the Seven Princes
wujue 五爵 the five titles of nobility
wuxing 五刑 the five capital punishments
wuxu bianfa 戊戌變法 Reform movement of 1898
X [top]
xiangyue 鄉約 community compact
xinhai geming 辛亥革命 Revolution of 1911
xiucai 秀才 "cultivated talent", title awarded to graduates of a type of state examination
xuanfushi 宣撫使 pacification commissioner
xuanweishi 宣慰使 pacification commissioner
xunfu 巡撫 provincial governor
Y [top]
yamen 衙門 district administration
yandang 閹黨 eunuch faction (ministers siding with the eunuchs)
yanglian yin 養廉銀 anti-corruption allowance
yanke 鹽課 salt tax
yantieshi 鹽鐵使 salt-and-iron commissioner
yaoyi 徭役 corvée labour
yi cutting off the nose as punishment
yicang 義倉 charity granaries
yin metropolitan magistrate
yinding 銀錠 see silver ingots
yinliang 銀兩 see silver ingots
yitiaobian fa 一條鞭法 single-whip method of taxation
yulin tuce 魚鱗圖冊 "fish scale registers" for land registration for land allotment (Ming)
yunhe 運河 see Grand Canal
yuping 餘平 surcharge
yushi dafu 御史大夫 Censor-in-chief
Yushitai 衘史臺 Censorate
Z [top]
zaixiang 宰相 Councellor-in-chief, see chengxiang
zhang beating with the heavy stick
zhantian ketian zhi 占田課田制 land quota and tax quota system (Jin)
zhengshang 征商 commercial taxes
zhengyifa 征一法 unified taxation method
zhezhongfa 折中法 equitable exchange method (salt administration)
zhifentian 職分田 see zhitian 職田
zhifu 知府 prefect
zhijiangfa 置將法 law on military commands (Wang Anshi reforms)
zhiqian 制錢 standard cash
zhitian 職田 "office fields" to provide salaries in grain (Jin to Yuan)
zhixian 知縣 district magistrate
zhizhou 知州 prefect, see zhifu 知府
Zhong-Fa zhanzheng 中法戰爭 Chinese-French War in 1883-1885
zhongshusheng 中書省 Palace Secretariat
zhuangtian 莊田 manors, large estates, latifundia
zhuangyuan 莊園 see zhuangtian 莊田
zhuanyunshi 轉運使 transport commissioner
zhuhou 諸侯 feudal lords (Zhou)
zi 子 viscount, see wujue 五爵
ziqiang yundong 自強運動 Self-strengthening Movement in the late 19th cent.
zongdu 總督 governor-general
zongli yamen 總理衙門 Foreign Office
zouzhe 奏摺 palace memorial
zuyongdiao zhi 租庸調制 tripartite tax system
zuyin 足銀 see silver ingots