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Terms in Chinese History

Periods of Chinese History
Event History
Administrative History
Economic History
Military History
Law and Jurisdiction
Scholarship
Religion
Calendar
Event History

ba 霸, a hegemonial lord
ba wang zhi luan 八王之亂, Rebellion of the Eight Princes (Jin period)
baqi 八旗, the Eight Banners
Boxer Uprising 1900
changcheng 長城, see Great Wall
Chimei 赤眉, see Red Eyebrows
Donglin Faction (donglin dang 東林黨)
Eight Banners, see baqi 八旗
Eight Princes, rebellion of, see ba wang zhi luan 八王之亂
eunuchs
eunuch faction, see yandang 閹黨
Great Wall (changcheng 長城 or wanli changcheng 萬里長城)
hegemonial lord, see ba
Huanghe 黄河, see Yellow River
huangjin qiyi 黃巾起義, see Yellow Turban uprising
Ili
Imperial Canal, see Grand Canal
jiawu zhangzheng 甲午戰爭, see First Chinese-Japanese War 1895
jinyiwei 錦衣衛, Brocade Guards, see changwei 廠衛
Lulin 綠林, name of a peasant uprising under Wang Mang, see Red Eyebrows
Red Eyebrows (Chimei 赤眉), name of a peasant uprising during the very late Former Han and the Xin dynasty
Red Turbans
Reform movement of 1898 (wuxu bianfa 戊戌變法)
Revolution of 1911 (xinhai geming 辛亥革命)
Self-strengthening movement (ziqiang yundong 自強運動)
Seven Princes, rebellion of (Wu-Chu qiguo zhi luan 吳楚七國之亂)
sichou zhi lu 絲綢之路, see Silkroad
Silkroad (sichou zhi lu 絲綢之路)
wanli changcheng 萬里長城, see Great Wall
Wang Anshi, reforms of
wu ba 五霸, the five hegemonial lords
Wu-Chu qiguo zhi luan 吳楚七國之亂, see Rebellion of the Seven Princes
wuxu bianfa 戊戌變法, see Reform movement of 1898
xinhai geming 辛亥革命, see Revolution of 1911
yandang 閹黨, eunuch faction
Yellow River
Yellow Turban uprising (huangjin qiyi 黃巾起義)
Zhong-Fa zhanzheng 中法戰爭, Chinese-French War in 1883-1885
ziqiang yundong 自強運動, see Self-strengthening movement

Administrative History

anchashi 按察使, surveillance commissioners
anfushi 安撫使, pacification commissioners
baqi 八旗, the Eight Banners
Banners, see baqi 八旗
baojia 保甲, communal self-defense system
baojiafa 保甲法, see baojia 保甲
bo 伯 "earl", see wujue 五爵
buzhengshi 布政使, provincial administration commissioners
caifangshi 採訪使, investigation commissioners
changwei 廠衛, Depots and Brocade Guards
chengxiang 丞相, Counsellor-in-chief
circuit, see lu
cishi 刺史, regional inspectors
concubines, see Female officials
counsellor, see chengxiang 丞相
caoyunsi 漕運司, see zhuanyunshi 轉運使
caoyun zongdu 漕運總督, Director-general of grain transport
censor, see yushi dafu 御史大夫
censorate, see Yushitai 衘史臺
dalisi 大理寺
daotai 道臺, circuit intendant
daoyuan 道員, see daotai 道臺
du caoyun shisi 都漕運使司, see zhuanyunshi 轉運使
duchayuan 都察院, see Yushitai 衘史臺
dudu 都督, commanders-in-chief
duhu 都護, protectors-general
duyushi 都御史, see yushi dafu 御史大夫
Eight Banners, see baqi 八旗
fangyushi 防禦使, defense commissioners
female officials (nüguan 女官)
gaitu guiliu 改土歸流, abolition of indirect rule by native chieftains
gong 公 "duke", see wujue 五爵
guanchashi 觀察使, surveillance commissioners
guanglu dafu 光祿大夫
guanglu xun 光祿勛
hedao zongdu 河道總督, directors-general of the Grand Canal
hou 候 "marquis", see wujue 五爵
hubu 戶部, Ministry of Revenue
huiguan 會館, guild halls
jiedushi 節度使, military commissioners
jimi 羈縻, indirect ruler over native border territories
jinglüeshi 經略使, regulatory commissioners
jiupin 九品, the nine ranks of state officials
jiuqing 九卿, the Nine Chamberlains
junjichu 軍機處, the Council of State
king, see wujue 五爵
lifanyuan 理藩院, the Court of Colonial Affairs
ling 令, magistrate or director
liubu 六部, the Six Ministries
lu 路, circuits
lijia 里甲, the rural self-administration system
magistrate, see ling 令 or zhixian
mazheng 馬政, horse administration
Ministry of Revenue, see hubu 戶部
menxiasheng 門下省
mu 牧, regional governors
nan 男 "baron", see wujue 五爵
neige 内閣, Grand Secretariat
neiwufu 内務府, Imperial Household Administration
Nüguan 女官, see female officials
palace memorial system, see zouzhe
Prime Minister, see chengxiang 丞相
prince, see wujue 五爵
protectorate, see duhu 都護
qing shi dafu 卿士大夫
sangong 三公, the Three Dukes
sansheng 三省, see shangshusheng, zhongshusheng, menxiasheng
shangshusheng 尚書省, Department of State Affairs
shumishi 樞密使, see shumiyuan
shumiyuan 樞密院, Bureau of Military Affairs
taichang 太常
taishou 太守
taiwei 太尉, Defender-in-chief
tidu xuezheng 提督學政, provincial educational commissioners
tusi 土司, native chieftains
wujue 五爵, the five titles of nobility
xiangyue 鄉約, community compacts
xuanfushi 宣撫使, pacification commissioners
xuanweishi 宣慰使, pacification commissioners
xunfu 巡撫, provincial governor
yantieshi 鹽鐵使, salt-and-iron commissioners
yin 尹, metropolitan magistrate
yushi dafu 御史大夫, Censor-in-chief
Yushitai 衘史臺, Censorate
zaixiang 宰相, see chengxiang
zhifu 知府, prefect
zhixian 知縣, magistrate
zhizhou 知州, see zhifu 知府
zhongshusheng 中書省, Imperial Secretariat
zhuanyunshi 轉運使, transport commissioners
zi 子 "viscount", see wujue 五爵
zongdu 總督, governors-general
zongli yamen 總理衙門, Foreign Office
zouzhe 奏摺, palace memorial

Economic History

bailiang 白糧, metropolitan tribute grain
banks, see qianzhuang 錢莊 and piaohao
Banner land, see qidi 旗地
baochao 寶鈔, see paper money
baomafa 保馬法, horse protection law (Wang Anshi reforms)
caoliang 漕糧, tribute grain
caoyun 漕運, transport of tribute grain
corvée labour, see yaoyi 徭役
dayunhe 大運河, see Grand Canal
diandang 典當, pawnshops
diding heyi 地丁合一, see tanding rumu 攤丁入畝
dingfu 丁賦, service tax
dudie 度牒, tax-exemption certificates (for the clergy)
duliangheng 度量衡, weights and measures
equal-field system, see juntian zhi 均田制
fangtianfa 方田法, see junshuifa 均税法
feiqian 飛錢, bills of exchange (Tang)
fenglu 俸祿, salary of state officials
fuyi 賦役, taxation methods
Grand Canal or Imperial Canal (dayunhe 大運河)
guanzi 關子, a kind of paper money (Song)
haoxian 耗羨, transport-loss surcharge
horse administration, see mazheng 馬政
household tax system, see hudiao zhi 戶調制
huangce 黃冊, the yellow registers
hubu 戶部, Ministry of Revenue
huiguan 會館, guild halls
huizi 會子, a kind of paper money (Song)
hudiao zhi 戶調制, household tax system
jiaozi 交子, paper money (Song)
jingtian zhi 井田制, the well-field system
jiupin huntong 九品混通, see hudiaozhi
jiupin xiangtong 九品相通, see hudiaozhi
junshufa 均輸法, balanced-delivery law (Wang Anshi reforms)
junshuifa 均税法, equal-tax law (Wang Anshi reforms)
juanmian 蠲免, tax remissions or waivers
juntian zhi 均田制, equal-field system
keze 科則, classification system for land tax
koufu 口賦, see suanfu 算賦
kuping tael 庫平, standard weight for silver ingots, Qing period
lougui 陋規, surcharge, "customary fee"
mianhangfa 免行法, see shiyifa 市易法
mianyifa 免役法, see muyifa 募役法
Ministry of Revenue, see hubu 戶部
money, see standard cash, paper money, money of the Qing period
muyifa 募役法, labour recruitment law (Wang Anshi reforms)
nongtian shuili fa 農田水利法, see shuilifa 水利法
paper money
pawnshops, see diandang 典當
piaohao 票號, the Shanxi Banks
pingdi pingtiao 平糴 平糶, price regulation of grain
pingmifa 平米法, field tax adjustment method
pingyu 平餘, surcharge
poll tax, see suanfu 算賦
qianyin 錢引, paper money (Song)
qianzhuang 錢莊, banks
qingmiaofa 青苗法, green-sprouts law (Wang Anshi reforms)
qidi 旗地, Banner land
sanxiang 三餉, extraordinary taxes for war finance (late Ming)
shecang 社倉, community granaries
shiyifa 市易法, market exchange law (Wang Anshi reforms)
shuilifa 水利法, hydraulic works law (Wang Anshi reforms)
silver ingots as money
single-whip method of taxation, see yitiaobian fa 一條鞭法
suanfu 算賦, poll tax
tanding rumu 攤丁入畝, fusion of the poll tax with the field tax
taxes, see dingfu 丁賦 (poll tax), hudiao zhi 戶調制 (household tax), zuyongdiao zhi 租庸調制 (tripartite tax system), liangshui fa 兩稅法 (twice-taxation system), yitiaobian fa 一條鞭法 (single-whip method)
tribute grain, see caoliang 漕糧
tuntian 屯田, military agro-colonies
weights and measures
well-field system, see jingtian zhi 井田制
wenyin 紋銀, see silver ingots
yanke 鹽課, salt tax
yanglian yin 養廉銀, anti-corruption allowance
yaoyi 徭役, corvée labour
yicang 義倉, charity granaries
silver ingots
yinding 銀錠, see silver ingots
yinliang 銀兩, see silver ingots
yitiaobian fa 一條鞭法, single-whip method of taxation
yulin tuce 魚鱗圖冊, "fish scale registers" for land registration, mainly used during the Ming period
yunhe 運河, see Grand Canal
yuping 餘平, surcharge
zhezhongfa 折中法, equitable exchange method (salt administration)
zhengshang 征商, commercial taxes
zhengyifa 征一法, unified taxation method
zuyongdiao zhi 租庸調制, tripartite tax system
zuyin 足銀, see silver ingots

Military History

baqi 八旗, the Eight Banners
baojia 保甲, communal self-defense system
baomafa 保馬法, horse protection law (Wang Anshi reforms)
buqu 部曲
dudu 都督, commanders-in-chief
Eight Banners, see baqi 八旗
fubing 府兵
horse administration, see mazheng 馬政
jiangbingfa 將兵法, see zhijiangfa 置將法
jiedushi 節度使, military commissioners
junxiang 軍餉, military pay
lüying 綠營
mazheng 馬政, horse administration
tuntian 屯田, military agro-colonies
zhijiangfa 置將法, law on military commands (Wang Anshi reforms)

Law and Jurisdiction

chi 笞, beating with the light stick
death penalty, see si
dabi 大辟, death penalty, see si
Da-Ming lü 大明律, the Ming Code
Da-Qing lüli 大清律例, the Qing Code
exile, see liu
Fajing 法經, the code of the feudal state of Wei
fei 剕, cutting off a foot as punishment
gong 宮, penal castration
lianzuofa 連坐法, collective liability
liu 流, exile
Lüxing 呂刑, the early Zhou Code
mo 墨, penal tattooing
Qingyuan tiaofa shilei 慶元條法事類, the Song Code
rouxing 肉刑, penal mutilation, see wuxing 五刑
sanzu 三族, the extinction of three generations
shuzui 贖罪, buying redemption from punishment
si 死, death penalty
Tanglü shuyi 唐律疏義, the Tang Code
tattooing,see mo
Tongzhi tiaoge 通制條格, the Yuan Code
tu 徒, penal servitude
wuxing 五刑, the five capital punishments
yi 劓, cutting off the nose as punishment
zhang 杖, beating with the heavy stick

Scholarship

academies, see shuyuan 書院
boshi 博士 "erudite, professor"
Confucianism
Confucian Classics
examination system (kejuzhi 科舉制)
fushe 復社, Revival Society, a literary society (Ming)
guozijian 國子監, the Directorate of Education
Hanlinyuan 翰林院, Hanlin Academy
jiaoshou 教授 "teacher"
kejuzhi 科舉制, see examination system
mingjing 明經, classicists
sanshefa 三舍法, law on the three colleges (Wang Anshi reforms)
schools
shuyuan 書院, academies
taixue 太學, National University
Thirteen Classics

Religion

Bailian School 白蓮教, see White Lotus Sect
White Lotus Sect (Bailianjiao 白蓮教)
Buddhism
Daoism
Taoism, see Daoism

Calendar

calendar
sui 歲, traditional lunar age



2000ff. © Ulrich Theobald · Mail