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Barbarians and Foreign States

The following list includes historical native tribes living within the present boundaries of China, non-Chinese tribes who founded dynasties on Chinese soil (as well as the names of their states, like both Qidan 契丹 / Kitans, and Liao 遼), and foreign states and peoples with which the Chinese dynasties had established "diplomatic relations" (like Anxi 安息 / Parthia, or Paekche 百濟). It does not include peoples officially designated as "national minorities" by the People's Republic of China.

All names are rendered in the Chinese version and the original name (like Baiji and Paekche). In some cases, several transcriptions are provided (like Beshbalik, Bešbalik, Bešbaliq). Foreign states are only given from the Chinese perspective (there is, therefore, no keyword "Persia"), except for the case of India (Tianzhu 天竺). States of Europe and America are not included.

The Chinese names of states of Southeast and South Asia and the Near East are only included as keywords, without articles referring to them (lists of these countries can be found in the table of contents of the books Yingya shenglan 瀛涯勝覽 and Xingcha shenglan 星槎勝覽). A complete list of the countries of the Tarim Basin and beyond can be found in the article on the Silk Road.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A [top]
Abage 阿巴噶 Chinese for Abaɣa, see Mongols (Qing)
Abaɣa tribe of Inner Mongolia, see Mongols (Qing)
Abaɣanar tribe of Inner Mongolia, see Mongols (Qing)
Abahana'er 阿巴哈納爾 Chinese for Abaɣanar, see Mongols (Qing)
Adan 阿丹 Chinese name for Aden in Arabia
Ailao 哀牢 native tribes the modern province of Yunnan, Han period
Aksu see Gumo 姑墨
Alaša tribe of Inner Mongolia, see Mongols (Qing)
Alashan 阿拉善 Chinese for Alaša, see Mongols (Qing)
Alu Ke'erqin 阿嚕科爾沁 Chinese for Aru Qorčin, see Mongols (Qing)
Anguo 安國 state of the Soghdiana, Tang period
Anxi 安息 Chinese name for Parthia, Han period
Anxi duhufu 安西都護 Protectorate of the Pacified West (Tang)
Anxi sizhen 安西四鎮 Four defense commands of the Protectorate of the Pacified West, see Qiuci 龜茲, Shule 疏勒, Yanqi 疏勒 , Yutian 于闐, see also Protectorate of the Pacified West
Aohan 敖漢 Chinese for Aoqan, see Mongols (Qing)
Aoqan tribe of Inner Mongolia, see Mongols (Qing)
Aru Qorčin tribe of Inner Mongolia, see Mongols (Qing)
Astana see Gaochang 高昌
Avars erroneous Western term for Rouran 柔然
B [top]
Ba native state in modern Chongqing, Zhou period
Baɣarin tribe of Inner Mongolia, see Mongols (Qing)
Baiji 百濟 Chinese reading of Paekche, a kingdom in ancient Korea
Balin 巴林 Chinese for Baɣarin, see Mongols (Qing)
Banggela 榜葛剌 Chinese name for Bengal
Bašmyls 拔悉蜜 Türkish tribe, Tang period
Baximi 拔悉蜜 see Bašmyls
Beilu 卑陸 city state north of the Silk Road
Beiting 北庭 Protectorate in the Western Territories, see also Tingzhou 庭州
Beiwei 北魏 Northern Wei, dynasty founded by the Taɣbač tribe
Beshbalik (Bešbalik, Bešbaliq) 別失八里 Türkish state around modern Ürümqi, Tang period
Bohai 渤海 Parhae, state north of modern North Korea
Buliyate 布里雅特 Chinese name for the Buryats
Buryats steppe people
C [top]
Cambodia see Funan and Zhenla
Caoguo 曹國 state of the Soghdiana, Tang period
Čerčen see Qiemo 且末
Chajala 茶札剌 Chinese name for the Jalayirs
Cheshi 車師 city state of the Silk Road
Chaoxian 朝鮮 Chinese reading for Chosŏn, Korea
Chenla see Zhenla 真臘
Chile 敕勒 Türkish steppe tribe, pre-Tang
Chosŏn 朝鮮 see Korea
Chu native state in the middle Yangtze region, Zhou period
D [top]
Dada 韃靼 Tatars, i. e. the Mongols after the Yuan period
Dali 大理 native state in the modern province of Yunnan, Song period
Dangxiang 黨項 Chinese name for the Tanguts
Danhuan 單桓 city state north of the Silk Road
Daqin 大秦 Chinese name for the Levant, often identified with the Roman empire
Dashi 大食 Chinese name for the Muslim states Persia, Tang period
Daxia 大夏 Chinese name for Bactria, Han period
Dayuan 大宛 state in the far west, in modern Uzbekistan, Han period
Deruo 德若 state in the Pamir Range, on the way to India
Di steppe tribe, generic designation for "northern barbarians"
Di native people in the modern province of Gansu, Han to Northern Dynasties periods
Dian native state in the modern province of Yunnan, Han period
Dilie 敵烈 steppe tribe, proto-Mongols, Tang period
Dingling 丁零 steppe tribe, proto-Türks, Northern Dynasties period
Dörbed tribe of Inner Mongolia, see Mongols (Qing)
Dörben Keüked tribe of Inner Mongolia, see Mongols (Qing)
Dunhuang 敦煌 westernmost commandery of ancient China
Dzungars 準噶爾 see Oirats
E [top]
Edsine-Torgud tribe of Inner Mongolia, see Mongols (Qing)
E'erduosi 鄂爾多斯 Chinese for Ordos, see Mongols (Qing)
Ejina Tu'erhute 額濟納土爾扈特 Chinese for Edsine-Torgud, see Mongols (Qing)
Elute 厄魯特 Chinese name for the Oirats
F [top]
Funan 扶南 state in Cambodia, Southern Dynasties period
Fuyu 夫余 state in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, Tang period
G [top]
Gaochang 高昌 kingdom north of the Silkroad, today in Xinjiang
Gaoche 高車 steppe tribe, proto-Türks, Han period
Gaogouli 高句麗 Chinese reading of Koguryŏ, a kingdom in ancient Korea
Gaoli 高麗 Chinese reading of Koryŏ, the name of mediaeval Korea
Gelan 葛蘭 Chinese name for Quilon or Kulam in southern India
Geluolu 葛邏祿 Chinese name for the Qarluq, a steppe tribe
Gorlos tribe of Inner Mongolia, see Mongols (Qing)
Guawa 瓜哇 Chinese name for Java
Guihuacheng Tumote 歸化城土默特 Chinese for the Tümed from Köke Qota, see Mongols (Qing)
Guishuang 貴霜 Chinese name for the Kushan state, modern Afghanistan
Guizi see Qiuci 龜茲
Guli 古里 Chinese name for Calicut in southern India
Gumo 姑墨 city state of the Silk Road
Guo'erluosi 郭爾羅斯 Chinese for Gorlos, see Mongols (Qing)
H [top]
Hami see Yizhou 伊州
Hanguo 韓國 (Hanguk) see Korea
Haoqite 浩齊特 Chinese for Qaɣučid, see Mongols (Qing)
Heihan 黑汗 the Karakhan states in modern Xiang and Uzbekistan, Song period
Heguo 何國 state of the Soghdiana, Tang period
Hephthalites (White Huns) or Yeda 嚈噠 nomad tribe in modern Afghanistan and India
Hongjila 弘吉剌 Chinese name for the Qonggirads, a steppe tribe
Hu generic Chinese designation of steppe tribes
Huhu 狐胡 city state north of the Silk Road
Huihe 回紇 old Chinese name for the Uyghurs
Huihu 回鶻 old Chinese name for the Uyghurs
Hulumosi 忽魯謨廝 Chinese name for Hormuz, Oman
Huns erroneous Western term for Xiongnu 匈奴
Huoxun 火尋 state of the Soghdiana, Tang period
I [top]
Ili 伊犁 region in the western borderland
India see Tianzhu 天竺
J [top]
J̌alaid tribe of Inner Mongolia, see Mongols (Qing)
Japan 日本
J̌arud tribe of Inner Mongolia, see Mongols (Qing)
Jiaohe 交河 administrative centre at the Silk Road, first headquarters of the Protectorate of the Pacified West (Tang), see also Cheshi 車師, Gaochang 高昌
Jibin 罽賓 Kashmir
Jie steppe tribe, Northern Dynasties period
Jie city state north of the Silk Road
Jilijisi 吉利吉思 Chinese name for the Qirqizes
Jin dynasty Chinese dynasty founded by the Jurchens
Jimsar see Cheshi 車師 and Tingzhou 庭州
Jingjue 精絕 city state of the Silk Road
Jiuxiang 舊香 Chinese name for Palembang, a city on Sumatera, Indonesia
Juandu 捐毒 state in the Pamir Range, on the way to India
Jurchen 女真 tribal federation of northeast China, ancestors to the Manchus
K [top]
Ka'erka 喀爾喀 Chinese for Qalqa, see Mongols (Qing)
Kalaqin 喀喇沁 Chinese for Qaracin, see Mongols (Qing)
Kalmyks see Oirats
Kangguo 康國 state of the Soghdiana, Tang period
Kangju 康居 tribe in modern Kazakhstan, Han period
Karakhans "Black Khans" Muslim states in modern Xinjiang and Uzbekistan
Karakum see Weili 尉犁
Karašahr see Yanqi 焉耆
Kargan see Shanshan 鄯善
Karghalik see Xiye 西夜
Karluks see Qarluqs
Kashmir see Jibin 罽賓
Kašgar see Shule 疏勒
Ke'erqin 科爾沁 Chinese for Qorčin, see Mongols (Qing)
Kelie 克烈 Chinese name for the Kereyids
Keraits see Kereyids
Kereyids Türkish tribe
Keriya see Yumi 扜彌
Keshiketeng 克什克騰 Chinese for Kesigten, see Mongols (Qing)
Kesigten tribe of Inner Mongolia, see Mongols (Qing)
Kezhi 柯枝 Chinese name for Cochin in southern India
Khotan see Yutian 于闐
Khwarezmia state in Central Asia
Kipchaks, see Qibčaq ulus (Golden Horde) Türkish tribes in the western steppe
Kirgizes, see Qirqizes Türkish tribe
Kitans steppe people, proto-Mongols founding the Chinese Liao dynasty
Kočo see Gaochang 高昌
Koguryŏ 高句麗 see Korea
Korea
Korla see Quli 渠犁
Koryŏ 高麗 see Korea
Kuča see Qiuci 龜茲
Kunling 昆陵 Protectorate in the Western Territories
Kushana state in modern Afghanistan
L [top]
Li 黎 see Jiuli 九黎
Liao Chinese state founded by the Kitans
Lidai 黎代 Chinese name for Litai or Lide in Sumatera
Linyi 林邑 see Champa
Liuqiu/Ryūkyū island group in the East China Sea, early name for Taiwan
Liushan 溜山 Chinese name for the Maldive Islands
Lixuan 黎軒 perhaps Eastern Rome
Loulan 樓蘭 city state of the Silk Road
Luntai 輪臺 military garrison at the Silk Road
Luoxing 裸形 Chinese name for the Nicobar Islands
M [top]
Malgal Korean reading of Mohe 靺鞨
Man generic designation for native tribes in southern China
Manlajia 滿剌加 Chinese name for Malacca
Maoming'an 茂明安 Chinese for Muumingɣan, see Mongols (Qing)
Mengchi 濛池 Protectorate in the Western Territories
Menggu 蒙古 Chinese name for the Mongols
Merkits steppe tribe
Miao general term for native tribes in southwestern China
Mie'rqi 蔑兒乞 see Merkits
Miguo 米國 state of the Soghdiana, Tang period
Mohe 靺鞨 Tungus people in northeast China
Mongols steppe people founding the Chinese Yuan dynasty
Muguo 穆國 state of the Soghdiana, Tang period
Muumingɣan tribe of Inner Mongolia, see Mongols (Qing)
N [top]
Naboli 那浡里 Chinese name for Lamuri in Sumatera [not Naples! 😃]
Nagu'r 那孤兒 (Chinese name for Nagur or Nakur in Sumatera
Naiman 奈曼 tribe of Inner Mongolia, see Mongols (Qing)
Naimans 乃蠻 Türkish tribe
Nandou 難兜 state in the Pamir Range, on the way to India
Nanzhao 南詔 native state in the modern province of Yunnan, Tang period
Northern Wei 北魏 Chinese dynasty founded by the Taɣbač tribe
Nüzhen 女真 Chinese name for the Jurchens
O [top]
Oirats 斡亦剌 steppe tribe, also called Dzungars
Okinawa see Liuqiu/Ryūkyū
Onggirats see Qonggirads 弘吉剌
Ölöds see Oirats
Önggüds 汪古 steppe tribe
Ongniɣud tribe of Inner Mongolia, see Mongols (Qing)
Ordos tribe of Inner Mongolia, see Mongols (Qing)
P [top]
Paekche 百濟 see Korea
Parhae Korean reading of Bohai 渤海
Parthia see Anxi 安息
Piao Chinese name for the kingdom of Pyu in Myanmar, Tang period
Pishan 皮山 state on the Silk Road, gateway to India through the Pamir Range
Pu native tribes living in the middle Yangtze region, Zhou period
Pulei 蒲類 city state north of the Silk Road
Puli 蒲犁 state in the Pamir Range, on the way to India
Puyŏ Korean reading of Fuyu 夫余
Pyu, state in Myanmar see Piao
Q [top]
Qaɣučid tribe of Inner Mongolia, see Mongols (Qing)
Qalqa Mongolian tribe, see Mongols (Qing)
Qaracin tribe of Inner Mongolia, see Mongols (Qing)
Qarakhans 黑汗 Türkish states in Eastern Turkestan
Qarluqs Türkish tribe
Qiang common designation for Tangutan peoples
Qibi 契苾 Türkish tribe, Tang period
Qidan 契丹 Chinese name for the Kitans
Qiemi 且彌 city state north of the Silk Road
Qiemo 且末 city state of the Silk Road
Qibčaq, see Qibčaq ulus (Golden Horde) Türkish tribes in the western steppe
Qincha 欽察 Chinese name for the Qibčaq, see Qibčaq ulus (Golden Horde)
Qirqizes Türkish tribe
Qiuci 龜茲 city state of the Silk Road
Qorčin tribe of Inner Mongolia, see Mongols (Qing)
Qule 渠勒 city state of the Silk Road
Quli 渠犁 city state of the Silk Road
R [top]
Rong generic designation for nomad peoples of the west
Ronglu 戎盧 city state of the Silk Road
Rouran 柔然 proto-Türkish tribe, Han to Northern Dynasties period
Rouzhi see Yuezhi 月氏
Ruoqiang 婼羌 city state of the Silk Road
Ryūkyū see Liuqiu/Ryūkyū
S [top]
Sai 塞 Chinese name for the Sakas
Sakas Indo-European people in western China, Han period
Sanmiao 三苗 barbarian tribes in high antiquity, see Miao
Jiuli 九黎 barbarian tribes in high antiquity
Scythians erroneous Western term for Yuezhi 月氏 or Tokharians
Shache 莎車 city state of the Silk Road
Shan native tribe in the hilly north of modern Myanmar
Shanguo 山國 city state north of the Silk Road
Shanshan 鄯善 city state of the Silk Road
Shatuo Türks 沙陀突厥
Shendu 身毒 (Chinese name for India) see Tianzhu 天竺
Shiguo 石國 state of the Soghdiana, Tang period
Shiguo 史國 state of the Soghdiana, Tang period
Shiwei 室韋 people of northeast China
Shu native state in modern Sichuan, Zhou period
Shule 疏勒 city state of the Silk Road
Silla 新羅 see Korea
Sizi buluo 四子部落 Chinese for Dörben Keüked, see Mongols (Qing)
Soghdiana 粟特 region in southern Kirgistan and northern Afghanistan
Suiye 碎葉 defense command of the Protectorate of the West, Kirgizstan (Tang)
Sumendala 蘇門答臘 Chinese name for Sumatera
Sunite 蘇尼特 Chinese for Sünid, see Mongols (Qing)
Sushen 肅慎 tribe in northeast China, Zhou period
Sute 粟特 see Soghdiana
Sünid tribe of Inner Mongolia, see Mongols (Qing)
Syr-Tarduš 薛延陀 Türkish tribe
T [top]
Tabghač European form of Taɣbač
Taɣbač tribe of the Xianbei, founders of the Northern Wei empire
Tanguts 黨項 tribes related to the Tibetans, founders of the Western Xia empire
Taohuai 桃槐 state in the Pamir Range, on the way to India
Taoxi er qi 套西二旗 Chinese for Alaša and Edsine-Torgud, see Mongols (Qing)
Tatars Chinese designation for the Mongols after the Yuan period
Tatars European name for the Manchus
Tianfang 天方 Chinese name for Mecca
Tianzhu 天竺 Chinese name for India
Tibet 吐蕃/西藏
Tiele 鐵勒 Chinese name for the Tölöš
Tingzhou 庭州 prefecture of the Protectorate of the West (Tang)
Tölöš Türkish tribe
Tu'erbote 杜爾伯特 Chinese for Dörbed, see Mongols (Qing)
Tümed tribe of Inner Mongolia, see Mongols (Qing)
Tumote 土默特 Chinese for Tümed, see Mongols (Qing)
Tuoba 拓跋 Chinese name for the Taɣbač
Tokhara 吐火羅 region in modern Kazakhstan and Afghanistan inhabited by the Tokharians
Tokharians see Yuezhi 月氏
Tubo 吐蕃 ancient state in Tibet, Tang period
Tufan 吐蕃 erroneously for Tubo
Tujue 突厥 Chinese name for the Türks
Türgiš Türkish tribe
Tuqishi 突騎施 Chinese name for the Türgiš
Turfan 吐魯番 see also Cheshi 車師 and Xizhou 西州
Turkestan, Eastern or Chinese T. (Xinjiang 新疆)
Türks
Tuguhun erroneously for Tuyuhun 吐谷渾
Turpan see Turfan 吐魯番
Tuyuhun 吐谷渾 Tangutan tribe in the region of modern Gansu and Qinghai, Tang period
U [top]
Üǰumüčin tribe of Inner Mongolia, see Mongols (Qing)
Urad tribe of Inner Mongolia, see Mongols (Qing)
Uyghurs Türkish tribes
see Wensu 溫宿
V [top]
Vietnam 越南 (Việt Nam) see also Champa
W [top]
Wa 倭 ancient Chinese designation of the Japanese
Wala 瓦剌 Chinese name of the Oirats
Wanggu 汪古 Chinese name of the Önggüds
Weili 尉犁 city state of the Silk Road
Weitou 尉頭 city state of the Silk Road
Weiwu'r 維吾爾 modern Chinese name of the Uyghurs
Weixu 危須 city state of the Silk Road
Wengniute 翁牛特 Chinese for Ongniɣud, see Mongols (Qing)
Wensu 溫宿 city state of the Silk Road
Western Xia 西夏 Chinese-style dynasty founded by Tanguts
White Huns see Hephthalites
Woju 沃沮 alternative transcription of Mohe 靺鞨
Woyila 斡亦剌 Chinese name of the Oirats
Wu native state in modern Zhejiang and Jiangsu, Zhou period
Wudi 戊地 state of the Soghdiana, Tang period
Wugu 烏古 steppe tribe, Liao and Jin periods
Wuhuan 烏桓 steppe tribe in northeast China, Han period
Wuji 勿吉 alternative transcription of Mohe 靺鞨
Wuji Xiaowei 戊己校尉 commandery, headquarters of the Protectorate of the Western Territories (Han)
Wulate 烏拉特 Chinese for Urad, see Mongols (Qing)
Wulei 無雷 state in the Pamir Range, on the way to India
Wulei 烏壘 city state of the Silk Road
Wusun 烏孫 steppe tribe in northwest China, Han period
Wutanzili 烏貪訾離 city state north of the Silk Road
Wutuo 烏托 state in the Pamir Range, on the way to India
Wuyishanli 烏弋山離 state in the Pamir Range, on the way to India
Wuzhumuqin 烏珠穆沁 Chinese for Üǰumüčin, see Mongols (Qing)
X [top]
Xi tribe of northeast China, Tang period
Xianbei 鮮卑 proto-Türkish tribe, Northern Dynasties period
Xianluo 暹羅 Chinese name for Siam, modern Thailand
Xianyun 玁狁 barbarian tribes in northwest China, Western Zhou period
Xiaowan 小宛 city state of the Silk Road
Xilan 錫蘭 Chinese name for Ceylon, modern Sri Lanka
Xinjiang 新疆 Eastern or Chinese Türkestan
Xinluo 新羅 Chinese reading for Silla, a kingdom in ancient Korea
Xiongnu 匈奴 steppe tribe
Xiuxun 休循 state in the Pamir Range, on the way to India
Xixia 西夏 (Western Xia) Chinese-style dynasty founded by Tanguts
Xiye 西夜 state in the Pamir Range, on the way to India
Xiyu 西域 Western Territories, old Chinese designation of the states in today's Xinjiang (Han-Ming), for the individual states see Silk Road
Xiyu duhufu 西域都護府 Protectorate of the Western Territories (Han)
Xizhou 西州 prefecture of the Protectorate of the West (Tang)
Xueyantuo 薛延陀 Chinese name for Syr-Tarduš
Y [top]
Yalu 啞魯 Chinese name for Aru in Sumatera
Yanqi 焉耆 city state of the Silk Road
Yarkant see Shache 莎車
Yarkhoto see Cheshi 車師
Yeda 嚈噠 see Hephthalites
Yengisar see Wulei 烏壘
Yi generic term for eastern barbarians, later for barbarians in general, and especially for those arriving from the sea
Yili Bali 亦力把里 (Ili Balik, Ili Baliq) state in Eastern Turkestan, 14th-16th cent.
Yili 伊犁 see Ili
Yilou 挹婁 Tungusic tribe in northeast China
Yinai 依耐 state in the Pamir Range, on the way to India
Yiwu 伊吾 see Yizhou 伊州
Yizhi 移支 city state north of the Silk Road
Yizhou 伊州 prefecture of the Protectorate of the West (Tang)
Yue native state in modern Zhejiang, Zhou period
Yue 越, Bai Yue 百越 "Hundred Yue" native tribes inhabiting southern China
Yuezhi 月氏 Tokharians, Indo-European people in western China
Yulishi 郁立師 city state north of the Silk Road
Yumi 扜彌 city state of the Silk Road
Yutian 于闐 city state of the Silk Road
Z [top]
Zhalaite 扎賚特 Chinese for J̌alaid, see Mongols (Qing)
Zhalute 扎魯特 Chinese for J̌arud, see Mongols (Qing)
Zhancheng 占城 Chinese name for Champa, a state or group of states in modern southern Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia
Zhenla 真臘 Chinese name for a state or a group of states in Cambodia (known as Chenla, 6.-9. Jh.), and for the Khmer empire
Zhunga'r 準噶爾 Chinese name for the Dzungars or Oirats
Zihe 子合 state in the Pamir Range, on the way to India
Zubu 阻卜 Mongolian tribe, alternative name for Tatars
Zufa'r 祖法兒 Chinese name for Dhofar in Arabia