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Chinese History - "Barbarian" Peoples

Periods of Chinese History
The following list includes historical native peoples living within the present boundaries of China, non-Chinese peoples founding dynasties on Chinese soil (as well as the names of their states, like both Qidan 契丹 / Khitan, and Liao 遼), and foreign states and peoples with which the Chinese dynasties had established "diplomatic relations" (like Anxi 安息 / Parthia, or Paekche 百濟). It does not include peoples officially designated as "national minorities" by the People's Republic of China. All names are rendered in the Chinese version and the original name (like Baiji and Paekche). In some cases, several transcriptions are provided (like Beshbalik, Bešbalik, Bešbaliq). Foreign states are only given from the Chinese perspective (there is, therefore, no keyword "Persia"), except for the case of India (Tianzhu 天竺). States of Europe and America are not included. The Chinese names of states of Southeast and South Asia and the Near East are only included as keywords, without articles referring to them (lists of these countries can be found in the table of contents of the books Yingya shenglan 瀛涯勝覽 and Xingcha shenglan 星槎勝覽). A whole list of the countries of the Tarim Basin and beyond can be found in the articles on the city-states of the Silk Road and the protectorate of the Western Territories.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
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A[top]
Adan 阿丹 (Chinese name for Aden in Arabia)
Ailao 哀牢 (native people the modern province of Yunnan, Han period)
Aksu, see Gumo 姑墨
Anguo 安國 (state of the Soghdiana, Tang period)
Anxi 安息 (Chinese name for Parthia, Han period)
Avars (erroneous Western term for Rouran 柔然)

B[top]
Ba 巴 (native state in modern Chongqing, Zhou period)
Baekje 百濟, see Korea
Baiji 百濟 (Chinese reading of Baekje, Korea)
Balhae, see Bohai 渤海
Banggela 榜葛剌 (Chinese name for Bengal)
Bašmyls 拔悉蜜 (Turkish people, Tang period)
Baximi 拔悉蜜, see Bašmyls
Beiwei 北魏 (Northern Wei, dynasty founded by the Taɣbač people)
Beshbalik (Bešbalik, Bešbaliq) 別失八里 (Turkish state around modern Ürümqi, Tang period)
Biao 驃 (Chinese name for the kingdom of Pyu in Myanmar, Tang period)
Bohai 渤海 (Balhae, state north of modern North Korea)
Buliyate 布里雅特 (Chinese name for the Buryats, a steppe people)
Buyeo, see Fuyu 夫余

C[top]
Caoguo 曹國 (state of the Soghdiana, Tang period)
Čerčen, see Qiemo 且末
Chajala 茶札剌 (Chinese name for the Jalayirs)
Cheshi 車師 (city-state of the Silk Road)
Chaoxian 朝鮮 (Chinese reading for Joseon, Korea)
Chile 敕勒 (Turkish steppe people, pre-Tang)
Chosŏn, see Korea
Chu 楚 (native state in the middle Yangtze region, Zhou period)

D[top]
Dada 韃靼 (Tatars, i. e. the Mongols after the Yuan period)
Dali 大理 (native state in the modern province of Yunnan, Song period)
Dangxiang 黨項 (Chinese name for the Tanguts)
Daqin 大秦 (Chinese name for the Levant, often identified with the Roman empire)
Dashi 大食 (Chinese name for the Muslim states Persia, Tang period)
Daxia 大夏 (Chinese name for Bactria, Han period)
Dayuan 大宛 (state in the far west, in modern Uzbekistan, Han period)
Di 狄 (steppe people, common designation for "northern barbarians")
Di 氐 (native people in the modern province of Gansu, Han to Northern Dynasties periods)
Dian 滇 (native state in the modern province of Yunnan, Han period)
Dilie 敵烈 (steppe people, proto-Mongols, Tang period)
Dingling 丁零 (steppe people, proto-Turks, Northern Dynasties period)
Dzungars 準噶爾, see Oirats

E[top]
Elute 厄魯特 (Chinese name for the Oirats)

F[top]
Funan 扶南 (state in the southern part of modern Vietnam, Song period)
Fuyu 夫余 (state in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, Tang period)

G[top]
Gaoche 高車 (steppe people, proto-Turks, Han period)
Gaogouli 高句麗 (Chinese reading of Goguryeo, Korea)
Gaoli 高麗 (Chinese reading of Goryeo, Korea)
Gelan 葛蘭 (Chinese name for Quilon or Kulam in southern India)
Geluolu 葛邏祿 (Chinese name for the Qarluq, a steppe people)
Goguryeo, see Korea
Goryeo, see Korea
Guawa 瓜哇 (Chinese name for Java)
Guici, see Qiuci 龜茲
Guishuang 貴霜 (Chinese name for the Kushan state, modern Afghanistan)
Guli 古里 (Chinese name for Calicut in southern India)
Gumo 姑墨 (city-state of the Silk Road)

H[top]
Hanguo 韓國 (Hanguk), see Korea
Heihan 黑汗 (the Karakhan states in modern Xiang and Uzbekistan, Song period)
Heguo 何國 (state of the Soghdiana, Tang period)
Hephthalites (White Huns) or Yeda 嚈噠 (nomad people in modern Afghanistan and India)
Hongjila 弘吉剌 (Chinese name for the Qonggirads, a steppe people)
Hu 胡 (common designation of steppe peoples)
Huhu 狐胡 (city-state of the Silk Road)
Huige 回紇 (old Chinese name for the Uyghurs)
Huigu 回鶻 (old Chinese name for the Uyghurs)
Hulumosi 忽魯謨廝 (Chinese name for Hormuz, Oman)
Huns (erroneous Western term for Xiongnu 匈奴)
Huoxun 火尋 (state of the Soghdiana, Tang period)

I[top]
India, see Tianzhu 天竺

J[top]
Japan 日本
Jie 羯 (steppe people, Northern Dynasties period)
Jilijisi 吉利吉思 (Chinese name for the Qirqizes, a steppe people)
Jin dynasty 金 (Chinese dynasty founded by the Jurchens)
Jimsar, see Cheshi 車師 and Tingzhou 庭州
Jingjue 精絕 (city-state of the Silk Road)
Jiuxiang 舊香 (Chinese name for Palembang, a city on Sumatera, Indonesia)
Joseon, see Korea
Jurchen 女真 (people of northeast China, ancestors to the Manchus)

K[top]
Kalmyks, see Oirats
Kangguo 康國 (state of the Soghdiana, Tang period)
Kangju 康居 (people in modern Kazakhstan, Han period)
Karakhans "Black Khans" (Muslim states in modern Xinjiang and Uzbekistan)
Karakum, see Weili 尉犁
Karašahr, see Yanqi 焉耆
Kargan, see Shanshan 鄯善
Karluks, see Qarluqs
Kašgar, see Shule 疏勒
Kelie 克烈 (Chinese name for the Kereyids)
Keraits, see Kereyids
Kereyids (Turkish people)
Keriya, see Yumi 扜彌
Kezhi 柯枝 (Chinese name for Cochin in southern India)
Khitans (steppe people, proto-Mongols founding the Chinese Liao dynasty)
Khotan, see Yutian 于闐
Kirgizes, see Qirqizes (Turkish people)
Koguryŏ 高句麗, see Korea
Korea 朝鮮/韓國
Korla, see Quli 渠犁
Koryŏ 高麗, see Korea
Kuča, see Qiuci 龜茲
Kushana (state in modern Afghanistan)

L[top]
Liao 遼 (Chinese state founded by the Khitan)
Lidai 黎代 (Chinese name for Litai or Lide in Sumatera)
Liuqiu, see Ryūkyū
Liushan 溜山 (Chinese name for the Maldive Islands)
Lixuan 黎軒 (Eastern Rome)
Loulan 樓蘭 (city-state of the Silk Road)
Luoxing 裸形 (Chinese name for the Nicobar Islands)

M[top]
Malgal, see Mohe 靺鞨
Man 蠻 (common designation for native peoples in southern China)
Manlajia 滿剌加 (Chinese name for Malacca)
Menggu 蒙古 (Chinese name for the Mongols)
Merkits (steppe people)
Miao 苗 (general term for native peoples in southwestern China)
Mie'rqi 蔑兒乞, see Merkits
Miguo 米國 (state of the Soghdiana, Tang period)
Mohe 靺鞨 (Tungus people in northeast China)
Mongols (steppe people founding the Chinese Yuan dynasty)

N[top]
Naboli 那浡里 (Chinese name for Lamuri in Sumatera)
Nagu'r 那孤兒 (Chinese name for Nagur or Nakur in Sumatera)
Naimans 乃蠻 (Turkish people)
Nanzhao 南詔 (native state in the modern province of Yunnan, Tang period)
Northern Wei 北魏 (Chinese dynasty founded by the Taɣbač people)
Nüzhen 女真 (Chinese name for the Jurchens)

O[top]
Oirats 斡亦剌 (steppe people, also called Dzungars)
Okinawa, see Ryūkyū
Onggirats, see Qonggirads 弘吉剌
Ölöds, see Oirats
Önggüds 汪古 (steppe people)

P[top]
Paekche 百濟, see Korea
Parhae, see Bohai 渤海
Parthia, see Anxi 安息
Pu 濮 (native people living in the middle Yangtze region, Zhou period)
Puyŏ, see Fuyu 夫余

Q[top]
Qarakhans 黑汗 (Turkish states in Eastern Turkestan)
Qarluqs (Turkish people)
Qiang 羌 (common designation for Tangutic peoples)
Qibi 契苾 (Turkish people, Tang period)
Qidan 契丹 "Chinese name for the Khitans)
Qiemo 且末 (city-state of the Silk Road)
Qirqizes (Turkic people)
Qiuci 龜茲 (city-state of the Silk Road)
Qule 渠勒 (city-state of the Silk Road)
Quli 渠犁 (city-state of the Silk Road)

R[top]
Rong 戎 (common designation for nomad peoples of the west)
Ronglu 戎盧 (city-state of the Silk Road)
Rouran 柔然 (proto-Turkish people, Han to Northern Dynasties period)
Rouzhi, see Yuezhi 月氏 (Chinese name for the Tokharians)
Ruoqiang 婼羌 (city-state of the Silk Road)
Ryūkyū (island kingdom in the Eastern Sea)

S[top]
Sai 塞 (Chinese name for the Sakas)
Sakas (Indo-European people in western China, Han period
Scythians (erroneous Western term for Yuezhi 月氏 or Tokharians)
Shache 莎車 (city-state of the Silk Road)
Shan 撣 (native people in the hilly north of modern Myanmar)
Shanguo 山國 (city-state of the Silk Road)
Shanshan 鄯善 (city-state of the Silk Road)
Shatuo Turks 沙陀突厥
Shendu 身毒 (Chinese name for India), see Tianzhu 天竺
Shiguo 石國 (state of the Soghdiana, Tang period)
Shiguo 史國 (state of the Soghdiana, Tang period)
Shiwei 室韋 (people of northeast China)
Shu 蜀 (native state in modern Sichuan, Zhou period)
Shule 疏勒 (city-state of the Silk Road)
Silla 新羅, see Korea
Soghdiana 粟特 (region in southern Kirgistan and northern Afghanistan)
Sumendala 蘇門答臘 (Chinese name for Sumatera)
Sushen 肅慎 (people in northeast China, Zhou period)
Sute 粟特, see Soghdiana
Syr-Tarduš 薛延陀 (Turkish people)

T[top]
Tabghač (European form of Taɣbač)
Taɣbač (tribe of the Xianbei, founders of the Northern Wei empire)
Tanguts 黨項 (people related to the Tibetans, founders of the Western Xia empire)
Tatars (Chinese designation for the Mongols after the Yuan period)
Tatars (European name for the Manchus)
Tianfang 天方 (Chinese name for Mecca)
Tianzhu 天竺 (Chinese name for India)
Tibet 吐藩/西藏
Tiele 鐵勒 (Chinese name for the Tölöš
Tölöš (Turkish people)
Tuoba 拓跋 (Chinese name for the Taɣbačs)
Tokhara 吐火羅, region in modern Kazakhstan and Afghanistan inhabited by the Tokharians
Tokharians, see Yuezhi 月氏
Tubo 吐藩 (ancient state in Tibet, Tang period)
Tufan 吐藩 (erroneously for Tubo)
Tujue 突厥 "Chinese name for the Turks)
Türgiš (Turkish people)
Tuqishi 突騎施 /Chinese name for the Türgiš)
Turkestan, Eastern or Chinese T. (Xinjiang 新疆)
Turks
Tuguhun (erroneously for Tuyuhun 吐谷渾)
Turfan 吐魯番, see also Cheshi 車師 and Xizhou 西州
Turpan, see Turfan 吐魯番
Tuyuhun 吐谷渾 (Tangutan people in the region of modern Gansu and Qinghai, Tang period)

U[top]
Uyghurs (Turkish people)
Uš, see Wensu 溫宿

V[top]
Vietnam 越南 (Việt Nam)

W[top]
Wa 倭 (ancient Chinese designation of the Japanese)
Wala 瓦剌 (Chinese name of the Oirats)
Wanggu 汪古 (Chinese name of the Önggüds)
Weili 尉犁 (city-state of the Silk Road)
Weitou 尉頭 (city-state of the Silk Road)
Weiwu'r 維吾爾 (modern Chinese name of the Uyghurs)
Weixu 危須 (city-state of the Silk Road)
Wensu 溫宿 (city-state of the Silk Road)
Western Xia 西夏 (Chinese-style dynasty founded by Tanguts)
White Huns, see Hephthalites
Woyila 斡亦剌 (Chinese name of the Oirats)
Wu 吳 (native state in modern Zhejiang and Jiangsu, Zhou period)
Wugu 烏古 (steppe people, Liao and Jin periods)
Wuji 勿吉, alternative transcription of Mohe 靺鞨
Wuhuan 烏桓 (steppe people in northern China, Han period)
Wulei 烏壘 (city-state of the Silk Road)
Wusun 烏孫 (steppe people in northwest China, Han period)

X[top]
Xi 奚 (people of northeast China, Tang period)
Xianbei 鮮卑 (proto-Turkish people, Northern Dynasties period)
Xianluo 暹羅 (Chinese name for Siam, modern Thailand)
Xiaowan 小宛 (city-state of the Silk Road)
Xilan 錫蘭 (Chinese name for Ceylon, modern Sri Lanka)
Xinjiang 新疆 (Eastern or Chinese Turkmenistan)
Xinluo 新羅 (Chinese reading for Silla, Korea)
Xiongnu 匈奴 (steppe people)
Xixia 西夏 (Western Xia, Chinese-style dynasty founded by Tanguts)
Xueyantuo 薛延陀 (Chinese name for Syr-Tarduš)

Y[top]
Yalu 啞魯 (Chinese name for Aru in Sumatera)
Yanqi 焉耆 (city-state of the Silk Road)
Yarkant, see Shache 莎車
Yarkhoto, see Cheshi 車師
Yeda 嚈噠, see Hephthalites
Yengisar, see Wulei 烏壘
Yi 夷 (common term for eastern barbarians, later for barbarians in general, and especially for those arriving from the sea)
Yili Bali 亦力把里 (Ili Balik, Ili Baliq, state in Eastern Turkestan, 14th-16th cent.)
Yili 伊犁 (Ili)
Yilou 挹婁 (Tungusic people in northeast China)
Yue 越 (native state in modern Zhejiang, Zhou period)
Yue 越, Bai Yue 百越 "Hundred Yue" (native peoples inhabiting southern China)
Yuezhi 月氏 (Tokharians, Indo-European people in western China)
Yumi 扜彌 (city-state of the Silk Road)
Yutian 于闐 (city-state of the Silk Road)

Z[top]
Zhancheng 占城 (Chinese name for Champa, a state in modern southern Vietnam and Cambodia)
Zhenla 真臘 (Chinese name for a state in Cambodia)
Zhunga'r 準噶爾 (Chinese name for the Dzungars or Oirats)
Zubu 阻卜 (Mongolian tribe, alternative name for Tatars)
Zufa'r 祖法兒 (Chinese name for Dhofar in Arabia)


October 30, 2011 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail