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Chinese History - The Feudal State of Chen 陳

Periods of Chinese History
See other feudal states of the Zhou period.
Don't confuse this feudal state of the Zhou period with the Chen dynasty 陳 (557-589) of the Southern Dynasties period 南朝 (420~589).

The state of Chen 陳 was a feudal state of the Zhou period 周 (11th cent.-221 BCE). As a small state of the Central Plain, it had always to cope with the ambitions of the larger states of the south.
The dynastic founder, Duke Hu of Chen 陳胡公, also called Man, Duke of Chen 陳公滿, is said to have been a descendant of the mythical emperor Shun 舜. His surname was Gui 嬀, and his family had been enfeoffed for generations with the territory, a custom that was perpetuated by King Wu of Zhou 周武王 (11th cent. BCE), the founder of the Zhou dynasty. After the death of Duke Huan 陳桓公 (r. 744-707), a succession crisis arose. The late duke's brother, Prince Tuo 佗 (or 他), had a mother from the state of Cai 蔡. In order to ensure his succession, Prince Wufu 五父 and Prince Wan 免, the actual heir apparent, were killed by nobles from Cai. Prince Tuo mounted the throne as Duke Li of Chen 陳厲公 (r. 706-700). Duke Li himself was also married to a princess from Cai that had an illicit relationship with someone from Cai. The Duke himself is likewise depicted as licentious. In 699 the surviving brothers of Prince Wan took revenge, lured the duke with a beautiful girl and had him killed by some nobles from Cai that felt insulted by the Duke. Prince Yao 躍 was proclaimed the new ruler, known as Duke Li 陳利公 (r. 700). He was succeeded after a short reign by his brother Lin 林, Duke Zhuang 陳莊公 (r. 699-693), and the latter was succeeded by his brother Prince Wujiu 杵臼, Duke Xuan 陳宣公 (r. 692-648). Duke Xuan had a secondary consort giving birth to a son, Prince Kuan 款. In order to make him successor (the eventual Duke Mu 陳穆公, r. 647-632), the Duke had killed the heir apparent, Prince Yukou 御寇. The Prince's intimate friend, Prince Wan 完, a son of late Duke Li 陳厲公, fled to the state of Qi 齊, where he refused to take an office. Duke Huan of Qi 齊桓公 (r. 685-643) married him to one of his daughters and enfeoffed him with the territory of Tian 田. Chen Wan 陳完, as he was called, was the ancestor of the second dynasty of the state of Qi (see Tian Jingzhong 田敬仲).
The reign of Duke Ling 陳靈公 (r. 613-599) initiated the downfall of the house of Chen. Chen was attacked by the powerful state of Chu 楚 in the south. At the court, the Duke played licentious games with Madame Xia 夏姬, the wife of Lord Yushu 御叔, and the nobles Kong Ning 孔寧 and Yi Xingfu 儀行父. Xie Ye 泄冶, a remonstrating minister, was assassinted by the two nobles. During a banquet, the Duke insulted Xia Zhengshu 夏徵舒, Lady Xia's son, by asking whom of he nobles he resembled (suggesting that Zhengshu's father was not Lord Yushu, but the Duke, Kong or Yi). Zhengshu thereupon laid down in ambush and shot the Duke with a crossbow. The heir apparent, Prince Wu 午, fled to Jin 晉, accompanied by the two nobles to Chu, and Zhengshu made himself duke of Chen. He is traditionally called Marquis of Chen 陳侯, not Duke, because he was killed in a battle with Chu and was not venerated in the ancestral temple. Although the king of Chu had promised the nobles of Chen to punish Zhengshu only, he tried occupying Chen and integrating it into the territory of Chu, but he was stopped by one of his ministers, Shen Shu 申叔. Prince Wu was thereupon received and mounted the throne as Duke Cheng 陳成公 (r. 598-569).
In the next generation, Chen again became the target of military campaigns from Chu. Duke Ai 陳哀公 (r. 568-534) had several sons from different mothers. His most beloved son was Prince Liu 留, who was given into custody with Prince Zhao 招 (also called Situ Zhao 司徒招 because he was Minister of Education, situ 司徒), the Duke's brother. When the Duke fell seriously ill, Situ Zhao killed Prince Dao 悼 and had the Duke arrested. In this precarious situation, Duke Ai hanged himself. Situ Zhao enthroned Prince Liu and sent an envoy to the state of Chu to announce the mourning for the late Duke Ai. King Ling of Chu 楚靈王 (r. 540-529) took the chance to attack Chen. Prince Liu fled to Zheng 鄭, and Chen was conquered by Chu. A surviving member of the house of Chu, Prince Wu 吳, a son of Prince Dao, stayed in exile in Jin. King Ping of Chu wanted to restore the house of Chen and made Prince Wu the new ruler of Chen, Duke Hui 陳惠公 (r. 533-506). In the annals, his rule was projected back to bridge the five years of interregnum. Under the reign of Duke Huai 陳懷公 (r. 505-502), the state of Wu 吳 conquered Chu. King Fucha 夫差 (r. 495-473) invited all lords of the smaller states to congratulate, but Duke Huai refused for fear that Chu might recover later and punish him. Shortly after, King Fucha cited him again to his court, and this time Duke Huai did not decline and traveled to Wu, where he was arrested. He died in confinement in Wu. Confucius 孔子 dwelled in Chen during that sad period, and was a witness to the downfall of the house of Chen. Duke Min 陳湣公 (r. 501-469) asked for help with the king of Chu against the ever stronger state of Wu. In 469, King Hui of Chu 楚惠王 (r. 488-432) led his troops to the north, defeated the troops of Chen, killed Duke Min and occupied his territory. In the same year, Confucius died.

Source: Shiji 史記 36, Chen Qi shijia 陳杞世家.

Rulers of Chen 陳
Capital: Chen 陳 (modern Huaiyang 淮陽, Anhui)
Note: The reign dates are given according to Western reckoning. In Chinese chronicles, the year after the first New Year of a rule is seen as the first year of reign. Example: Duke Ling died in 599, his son Duke Cheng immediately acceeded to the throne, yet Chinese chronicles see 598 as his first (full) year of reign (Chen Chenggong 1).
dynastic title See also titles of rulers. personal name time
Chen Hugong 陳胡公Gui Man 嬀滿
Descendant of Emperor Shun 堯.
Chen Shengong 陳申公Gui Xihou 嬀犀侯
Chen Xianggong 陳相公Gui Gaoyang 嬀皐羊
Chen Xiaogong 陳孝公Gui Tu 嬀突
Chen Shengong 陳慎公Gui Yurong 嬀圉戎
Chen Yougong 陳幽公Gui Ning 嬀寧855-832
Chen Xigong 陳釐公 (or 僖公)Gui Xiao 嬀孝832-795
Chen Wugong 陳武公Gui Ling 嬀靈795-781
Chen Yigong 陳夷公Gui Yue 嬀說781-778
Chen Pinggong 陳平公Gui Xie 嬀燮778-755
Chen Wengong 陳文公Gui Yu 嬀圉755-745
Chen Huangong 陳桓公Gui Bao 嬀鮑745-707
Chen Ligong 陳厲公Gui Yao 嬀躍707-700
Chen Zhuangong 陳莊公Gui Lin 嬀林700-693
Chen Xuangong 陳宣公Gui Chujiu 嬀杵臼693-648
Chen Mugong 陳穆公Gui Kuan 嬀款648-632
Chen Gonggong 陳共公Gui Shuo 嬀朔632-614
Chen Linggong 陳靈公Gui Pingguo 嬀平國614-599
Chen Chenggong 陳成公Gui Wu 嬀午599-569
Chen Aigong 陳哀公Gui Ni 嬀溺569-534
Chen Huigong 陳惠公Gui Wu 嬀吳534-506
Chen Huaigong 陳懷公Gui Liu 嬀柳506-502
Chen Mingong 陳湣公Gui Yue 嬀越502-469
469 Chen destroyed by Chu 楚.

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