An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History and Literature

Jiang Wan 蔣琬

Feb 23, 2024 © Ulrich Theobald

Jiang Wan 蔣琬 (d. 246), courtesy name Gongtan 公琰, was chief minister of the state of Shu 蜀漢 (221-263), one of the Three Empires 三國 (220~280 CE).

Jiang's hometown was Xiangxiang 湘鄉 in the commandery of Lingling 零陵 (in today’s Hubei province). He served Liu Bei 劉備 (161-222) as an administrative clerk (shuzuo 書佐) and followed him in the conquest of the Sichuan Basin, where he took over the function of township head of Guangdu 廣都, and then that of district magistrate (ling 令) of Shifang 什邡. When Liu bei adopted the title of King of Hanzhong 漢中王, Jiang Wan was appointed sectional head in the Imperial Secretariat (shangshu lang 尚書郎). In 223, he was made clerk in the eastern section of the Counsellor's Office (chengxiangfu dongcao yuan 丞相府東曹掾). During Zhuge Liang's 諸葛亮 (181-234) military campaigns in the Hanzhong region, Jiang Wan and Zhang Yitong 張裔統 were entrusted with the management of the central government in Chengdu. In 229, Jiang was made aide (zhangshi 長史) to the Counsellor-in-chief Zhuge Liang, and concurrently held the title of General Supporting the Army (fujun jiangjun 撫軍將軍), a function, in which he was responsible for the supply of the army of Shu that operated in the border area to the empire of Wei 曹魏 (220-265).

When Zhuge Liang died, Jiang Wan was made Director of the Imperial Secretariat (shangshu ling 尚書令) and regional inspector (cishi 刺史) of the province of Yizhou 益州, and bore the titles of General-in-chief (da jiangjun 大將軍) and Overseer of the Imperial Secretariat (lu shangshu shi 錄尚書事). His position required ennoblement, and he was thus invested as Marquis of the Neighbourhood of Anyang 安陽亭侯. In 238, Jiang himself commanded the operations in Hanzhong for which he was granted the title of Commander-in-chief (da sima 大司馬). During the campaign, he also managed civilian affairs from the field.

His posthumous title is Marquis Gong 安陽亭恭侯.

Huang Huixian 黃惠賢, ed. (1997). Ershiwushi renming da cidian 二十五史人名大辭典 (Zhengzhou: Zhongzhou guji chubanshe), Vol. 1, 124.
Ren Baogen 任寶根, ed. (1989). Sichuan lidai mingjiang 四川歷代名將 (Chengdu: Ba-Shu shushe), 15.
Xiong Tieji 熊鐵基, Yang Youli 楊有禮, eds. (1994). Zhongguo diwang zaixiang cidian 中國帝王宰相辭典 (Wuhan: Hubei jiaoyu chubanshe), 548.
Wan Li 萬里, ed. (2006). Hu-Xiang wenhua da cidian 湖湘文化大辭典 (Changsha: Hunan renmin chubanshe), Vol. 1, 263.
Zhuang Hanxin 莊漢新, Guo Juyuan 郭居園, eds. (1991). Zhongguo gujin mingren da cidian 中國古今名人大辭典 (Beijing: Jingguan jiaoyu chubanshe), 736.