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Xiahou Shang 夏侯尚

Jul 1, 2013 © Ulrich Theobald

Xiahou Shang 夏侯尚 (d. 225 CE), courtesy name Boren 伯仁, was a general under the warlord Cao Cao 曹操 at the very end of the Later Han period 後漢 (25-220 CE).

He was a nephew of Xiahou Yuan 夏侯淵 and participated in Cao Cao's campaign in the province of Jizhou 冀州 (modern Shanxi and Hebei) and put down the rebellion of the Hu tribes 胡 in the commandery of Daijun 代郡. After Cao Cao's death Xiahou Shang escorted his late commander's coffin back to his residence Ye 鄴.

Cao Pi 曹丕 (Emperor Wen 魏文帝, r. 220-226), who proclaimed himself emperor of the Wei dynasty 曹魏 (220-265), made Xiahou Shang General conquering the south (zhengnan jiangjun 征南將軍) and regional inspector (cishi 刺史) of Jingzhou 荊州 (modern Hubei) and so entrusted him with the stabilization of the middle Yangtze region. Xiahou Shang succeeded in the conquest of three commanderies and nine districts from the hands of Liu Bei 劉備, master of the region of Shu 蜀 (Sichuan), and was therefore granted the title of Great general conquering the south (zhengnan da jiangjun 征南大將軍).

In 222, Xiahou Shang and Cao Zhen 曹真 besieged the city of Jiangling 江陵 that was in the hands of the empire of Wu, and defeated Zhuge Jin's 諸葛瑾 naval army on the Yangtze River by his famous fire attack. In 224 Xiahou Shang was given the title of sTownship Marquis of Changling 昌陵鄉侯, but he died already a year later. His posthumous title is Marquis Dao 昌陵鄉悼侯.

Zhang Shunhui 張舜徽, ed. (1992). Sanguozhi cidian 三國志辭典 (Jinan: Shandong jiaoyu chubanshe), 342.