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Yuan Dynasty Emperors

Mar 19, 2016 © Ulrich Theobald
Yuan Dynasty 元朝 (1206/1279-1368)
Capital: Qaɣanbaliq (Dadu 大都, modern Beijing 北京)
temple name (miaohao 廟號)
Mongolian title
personal name reign periods (nianhao 年號)
Yuan Taizu 元太祖 (r. 1206-1227)
Činggis Qaɣan (Gengiz Khan, Cheng-ji-si Han 成吉思汗)
Borǰigid Temüjin (Bo-er-zhi-jin Tie-mu-zhen 勃兒只斤鐵木真)
Yuan Ruizong 元睿宗 (r. 1228)
(Ye-ke-na-yan 也可那顔)
Tölüi (Tuo-lei 拖雷)
Yuan Taizong 元太宗 (r. 1229-1241) Ögödei (Wo-kuo-tai 窩闊台)
Empress Naimaĵin (Nai-ma-zhen 乃馬真后, regent 1241-1246) Naimaĵin Töregene, widow of Ögödei (Nai-ma-zhen Tuo-lie-ge-na 乃馬真脫列哥那)
Yuan Dingzong 元定宗 (r. 1246-1248) Güyüg (Gui-you 貴由)
Empress Qaimiš (Hai-mi-shi 海迷失后, regent 1248-1251) Oγul Qaimiš, widow of Güyüg (Wo-wu-li Hai-mi-shi 斡兀立海迷失)
Yuan Xianzong 元憲宗 (r. 1251-1259) Möngke Qaɣan (Meng-ge 蒙哥)
Yuan Shizu 元世祖 (r. 1260-1294)
Sečen Qaγan (Xue-chan 薛禪皇帝)
Qubilai Qaɣan (Hu-bi-lie 忽必烈) Zhongtong 中統 (1260-1263)
Zhiyuan 至元 (1264-1294)
Usurpers Du Keyong 杜可用 (1280)
-----Wancheng 萬乘 1280
Lin Guifang 林桂方, Zhao Liangqian 趙良鈐 (1283)
-----Yankang 延康 1283
Yang Zhenlong 楊鎮龍 (1289)
-----Anding 安定 1289
Yuan Chengzong 元成宗 (r. 1294-1307)
Ölĵeyitü Qaγan (Wan-ze-du 完澤篤皇帝)
Temür (Tie-mu-er 鐵穆耳) Yuanzhen 元貞 (1295-1296)
Dade 大德 (1297-1307)
Yuan Wuzong 元武宗 (r. 1307-1311)
Külüg Qaγan (Qu-lü 曲律皇帝)
Qayišan (Hai-shan 海山) Zhida 至大 (1308-1311)
Yuan Renzong 元仁宗 (r. 1311-1320)
Buyantu Qaγan (Pu-yan-du 普顏篤皇帝)
Āyurparibhadra (Ai-yun-li-ba-li-ba-da 愛育黎拔力八達) Huangqing 皇慶 (1312-1313)
Yanyou 延祐 (1314-1320)
Yuan Yingzong 元英宗 (r. 1320-1323)
Gegeγen Qaγan (Ge-jian 格堅皇帝)
Šudibala, Siddhipāla (Shuo-de-ba-la 碩德八剌) Zhizhi 至治 (1321-1323)
The Taiding Emperor 元泰定皇帝 (r. 1323-1328) Yesun Temür (Ye-sun Tie-mu-er 也孫鐵木兒) Taiding 泰定 (1324-1327)
Zhihe 致和 (1328)
The Infant Emperor (Youzhu) or the Tianshun Emperor 幼主天順皇帝 (r. 1328)
Emperor A-su-ji-ba 阿速吉八皇帝
Aragibaγ, Rigibaγ (A-la-ji-ba 阿剌吉八) Tianshun 天順 (1328)
Yuan Wenzong 元文宗 (r. 1328; 1329-1331)
Ĵayaγatu Qaγan (Zha-ya-du 札牙篤皇帝)
Tuγ Temür (Tu Tie-mu-er 圖帖睦爾) Tianli 天曆 (1328-1329)
Zhishun 至順 (1330-1332)
Yuan Mingzong 元明宗 (r. 1329-1331)
Qutuγtu Qaγan
Qošila, Kuśala (He-shi-la 和世㻋) [Tianli]
Yuan Ningzong 元寧宗 (r. 1332) Irinĵinpal, Rinčinbal (Yi-lin-zhi-ban 懿璘質班) [Zhishun]
Yuan Huizong 元惠宗, Yuan Shundi 元順帝 (r. 1333-1370)
Uqaγatu Qaγan (Wu-ha-ge-tu 烏哈噶圖汗 or Wu-ha-du 烏哈篤汗)
Toqōn Temür, Toγun Temür (Tuo-huan Tie-mu-er 妥歡帖睦爾 Yuantong 元統 (1333-1334)
Zhiyuan 至元 (1335-1340)
Zhizheng 至正 (1341-1368/1370)
Usurpers Zhu Guangqing 朱光卿 (1337)
-----Chifu 赤符 1337
Xu Shouhui 徐壽輝, Emperor of Tianwan 天完 (r. 1351-1360)
-----Zhiping 治平 1351-1355
-----Taiping 太平 1356-1357
-----Tianqi 天啟 1358
-----Tianding 天定 1359-1360
Zhang Shicheng 張士誠, Emperor of Zhou 周 (r. 1354-1357)
-----Tianyou 天佑 (天祐) 1354-1357
Han Lin'er 韓林兒, Emperor of Song 宋 (r. 1355-1366)
-----Longfeng 龍鳳 1355-1366
Chen Youliang 陳友諒, Emperor of Han 漢 (r. 1360-1362)
-----Dayi 大義 1360-1362
Chen Li 陳理, Emperor of Han (r. 1363-1364)
-----Deshou 德壽 1363-1364
Ming Baozhen 明寶珍, Emperor of Xia 夏 (r. 1362-1366)
-----Tiantong 天統 1362-1366
Ming Sheng 明昇, Emperor of Xia (r. 1367-1371)
-----Kaixi 開熙 1367-1371
Zhu Yuanzhang 朱元璋, Emperor of Wu 吳, founder of the Ming dynasty
-----Hongwu 洪武 1366-1398
Northern Yuan Dynasty Beiyuan 北元 (1368-1402)
Yuan Huizong 元惠宗, Yuan Shundi 元順帝 (r. 1333-1370)
Uqaγatu Qaγan (Wu-ha-ge-tu 烏哈噶圖汗 or Wu-ha-du 烏哈篤汗)
Toqōn Temür, Toγun Temür (Tuo-huan Tie-mu-er 妥歡帖睦爾 Zhizheng 至正 (1341-1368/1370)
Yuan Zhaozong 元昭宗 or Zhezong 元哲宗 (r. 1371-1378), Wucheng Hexiao Huangdi 武承和孝皇帝
Biligtü Qaγan (Bi-li-ke-tu 必里克圖汗)
Ayuširidara, Āyuśrīdara (Ai-you-shi-li-da-la 愛猷識理達臘) Xuanguang 宣光 (1371-1378)
Yuan Yizong 元益宗 (r. 1378-1388), Ningxiao Huangdi 寧孝皇帝, the Last Ruler of the Northern Yuan 北元後主, Tianyuan Emperor 元天元帝
Usqal Qaγan (Wu-si-ha-le 兀思哈勒可汗)
Tögüs Temür (Tuo-gu-si Tie-mu-er 脫古思帖木兒) Tianyuan 天元 (1379-1388)
Xingyuan Huangdi 興原皇帝 (r. 1388–1392)
Joriγtu Qaγan (Zhuo-li-ke-tu 卓里克圖汗)
Yesüder (Ye-su-die-er 也速迭兒)
Engke Qaγan (En-ke 恩克可汗, r. 1392)
Dagu Huangdi 大古皇帝 (r. 1392–1399)
Nigülesügči Qaγan (Ni-gu-lüe-su-ke-qi 尼古埒蘇克齊汗)
Elbeg (E-le-bo-ke 額勒伯克)
Shuntian Huangdi 順天皇帝 (r. 1400-1402)
Toγoγan Qaγan (Tuo-gu 脱古罕)
Gün Temür (Kun Tie-mu-er 坤帖木兒)
Source:
Zhonguo lishi da cidian bianzuan weiyuanhui 中國歷史大辭典編纂委員會, ed. (2000). Zhongguo lishi da cidian 中國歷史大辭典 (Shanghai: Shanghai cishu chubanshe), Vol. 2, 3349-3352.