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Sanlitu 三禮圖

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Sanlitu 三禮圖 "Illustrations to the Three Ritual Classics" was the name of different collections of illustrations to ritual performances and gestures, the most important of which was written by the Later Han period 後漢 (25-220 CE) scholar Zheng Xuan 鄭玄. Another text with the same name was compiled by Ruan Chan 阮諶. The individual books were also called Zhengshi tu 鄭氏圖 "Illustrations by Master Zheng" and Ruanshi tu 阮氏圖 "Illustrations by Master Ruan". Text and illustrations are long lost, but fragments were collected by the Qing period 清 (1644-1911) scholar Ma Guohan 馬國翰, for instance, from Nie Chongyi's 聶崇義 book Sanlitu jizhu 三禮圖集注 from the Song period 宋 (960-1279). The 20 juan "scrolls" long book by Nie Chongyi included illustrations of caps and robes, carts and chariots, palace and temple buildings, musical instruments, shooting exercises, banners and flags, sacrificial vessels and objects used for funerals. The book of Nie Chongyi does not necessarily correspond to the ancient Sanlitu, but it seems to be very close to the Han period original. It was compiled on imperial order during the Later Zhou period 後周 (951-960). Unfortunately no single illustration has survived. The fragments are to be found in Ma Guohan's collectaneum Yuhanshanfang jiyi shu 玉函山房.
Other books with the same title were written by Xiahou Fulang 夏侯伏朗, Zhang Yi 張謚 and Liang Zheng 梁正, and as official compilation during the Kaihuang 開皇(581-600) reign of the Sui period 隋 (581-618). All of these texs went lost during the Song period.
During the Ming period 明 (1368-1644) Liu Ji 劉績, courtesy name Liu Yongxi 劉用熙, style Luquan 蘆泉, compiled a ritual book with the same title and a length of 4 juan. He came from Jiangxia 江夏 (near modern Wuchang 武昌, Hubei), obtained his jinshi degree in 1490, and was prefect (zhifu 知府) of Zhenjiang 鎮江. His book Sanlitu was based on earlier, Song period writings on the topic, like Lu Dian's 陸佃 Lixiang 禮象, Chen Xiangdao's 陳祥道 Lishu 禮書, Lin Xiyi's 林希逸 Kaogongji jie 考工記解 and the official catalogue Xuanhe bogu tu 宣和博古圖. Liu Ji's Sanlitu is a description of the palace system (the position and meaning of palace buildings) and all objects used during court ceremonies and for the court officialdom in general. This book relies more on the official compilation Xuanhe bogu tu than on Han period texts, yet the former is of a minor quality and must be used with caution. Liu Ji's Sanlitu is included in the collectanea Hubei xianzheng yishu 湖北先正遺書 and Zhenshijizhai congshu 慎始基齋叢書.

Sources: Shi Xuanyuan 施宣圓 et al. (ed. 1987), Zhongguo wenhua cidian 中國文化辭典 (Shanghai: Shanghai shehui kexue chubanshe), p. 143. ● Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文鬰 (ed. 1996), Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 1, p. 240.

October 5, 2013 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail
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