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Chinese Literature
Lexicography (xiaoxue 小學)


The Four Categories of Literature
The literary type of lexicography (xiaoxue lei 小學類) is a sub-category to the literary category of Confucian Classics (jingbu 經部) in the collectaneum Siku quanshu 四庫全書. The term xiaoxue originally designated the six minor or "trivial" arts (liuyi 六藝), namely rituals, music, shooting, charioteering, writing, and arithmetics. From the Han period 漢 (206 BCE-220 CE) on it became a specific term for the study of Chinese characters and their meaning. Later on, during the Tang period 唐 (618-907), the discipline of lexicography was divided into the branches of glyphology - investigating the shape of characters (wenzi 文字) -, phonetics - making research about the pronunciation (yinyun 音韻) -, and etymology - looking for the original and modern meanings of characters (xungu 訓詁). All these fields included the study of bronze and stone inscriptions, seal carvings and calligraphy and soon developed into a discipline laying the base for all other studies. The term xiaoxue thus has also the connotation of "elementary learning", a field which is normally designated with the words mengxue 蒙學, tongxue 童學, tongmeng 童蒙, dizizhi 弟子職 or youyi 幼儀. The compilers of the Siku quanshu put the instruction on behaviour into the section of Confucian treatises, books on calligraphy into the arts section, and the books on elementary learning into the stories or encyclopedias sections. The three fields of lexicographic studies are each derived from one leading book: etymology (xungu 訓詁, 12 books) from the Erya 爾雅, which is included in the canon of the Confucian Classics, glyphology (zishu 字書, 36 books) from the Shuowen jiezi 說文解文, and phonology (yunshu 韻書, 33 books) from the book Guangyun 廣韻. The lexicographic section of the Siku quanshu includes 81 books.

書名 Title Author(s)
訓詁屬 Xungu Etymology
爾雅Erya
方言Fangyan(Han) 揚雄 Yang Xiong
釋名Shiming(Han) 劉熙 Liu Xi
小爾雅Xiao Erya(Han) 孔鮒 Kong Fu (?)
廣雅 (博雅)Guangya (Boya)(Cao-Wei) 張揖 Zhang Yi
匡謬正俗Kuangmiu zhengsu(Tang) 顏師古 Yan Shigu
埤雅Piya(Song) 陸佃 Lu Dian
爾雅翼Eryayi(Song) 羅愿 Luo Yuan
駢雅Pianya(Ming) 朱謀㙔 Zhu Mouhan
通雅 *Tongya(Ming) 方以智 Fang Yizhi
續方言Xu fangyan(Qing) 杭世駿 Hang Shijun
廣釋名 *Guang shiming(Qing) 張金吾 Zhang Jinwu
別雅Bieya(Qing) 吳玉搢 Wu Yujin
比雅 *Biya(Qing) 洪亮吉 Hong Liangji
疊雅 *Dieya(Qing) 史夢蘭 Shi Menglan
字書屬 Zishu Glyphology
急就篇Jijiupian(Han) 史游 Shi You
說文解字Shuowen jiezi(Han) 許慎 Xu Shen
字林 *Zilin(Jin) 呂忱 Lü Chen
玉篇Yupian(Liang) 顧野王 Gu Yewang
干祿字書Ganlu zishu(Tang) 顔元孫 Yan Yuansun
佩觿Peixi(Song) 郭忠恕 Guo Zhongshu
六書略Liushu lüe (part of Tongzhi 通志)(Song) 鄭樵 Zheng Qiao
類篇Leipian(Song) 司馬光 Sima Guang
復古編Fugubian(Song) 張有 Zhang You
六書故Liushugu(Yuan) 戴侗 Dai Tong
字通Zitong(Song) 李從周 Li Congzhou
龍龕手鑑Longkan shoujian(Liao) 行均 Xingjun
六書統Liushutong(Yuan) 楊桓 Yang Huan
字鑒Zijian(Yuan) 李文仲 Li Wenzhong
番漢合時掌中珠 *Fan-Han heshi zhangzhong zhu(Western Xia) "骨勒茂才 Gule Maocai"
字彙 *Zihui(Ming) 梅膺祚 Mei Yingzuo
正字通 *Zhengzitong(Ming) 張自烈 Zhang Zilie
華夷譯語 *Huayi yiyu(Ming) Huo Yuanji 火原潔
康熙字典Kangxi zidian(Qing) 張玉書 Zhang Yushu et.al. (imp. ord.)
清文鑒
五體清文鑒
Qingwenjian
Wuti qingwen jian
(Qing) Fuheng 傅恆 et.al. (imp. ord.)
(欽定)西域同文志(Qinding) Xiyu tongwen zhi(Qing) 傅恆 Fu Heng et al. (imp. ord.)
隸辨Libian(Qing) 顧藹吉 Gu Aiji
馬氏文通 *Mashi wentong(Qing) 馬建忠 Ma Jianzhong
韻書屬 Yunshu Phonology
切韻 *Qieyun(Sui) 陸法言 Lu Fayan
唐韻 *Tangyun(Tang) 孫愐 Sun Mian
一切經音義 *Yiqiejing yinyi(Tang) 1) 玄應 Xuanying, 2) 慧琳 Huilin
韻鏡 *Yunjing(Wudai) anon.
廣韻Guangyun(Song) 陳彭年 Chen Pengnian
集韻Jiyun(Song) 丁度 Ding Du
切韻指掌圖 *Qieyun zhizhang tu(Song) 司馬光 Sima Guang (?)
文海 *Wenhai(Western Xia) anonymous
中原音韻Zhongyuan yinyunPoetry and Arias(Yuan) 周德清 Zhou Deqing
蒙古字韻 *Menggu ziyun(Yuan) anonymous
中州音韻 *Zhongzhou yinyunPoetry and Arias(Ming) 王文璧 Wang Wenbi
中州全韻 *Zhongzhou quanyunPoetry and Arias(Ming) 范善溱 Fan Shanqin
禮部韻略Libu yunlüe(Song) 丁度 Ding Du, 毛晃 Mao Huang, 毛居正 Mao Juzheng (rev.),
歐陽德隆 Ouyang Delong (comm.), 郭守正 Guo Shouzheng (rev. comm.)
洪武正韻Hongwu zhengyun(Ming) 樂韶鳳 Le Shaofeng, 宋濂 Song Lian (et al., imp. ord.)
佩文韻府Peiwen yunfu(Qing)
韻府拾遺Yunfu shiyi(Qing) 張廷玉 Zhang Tingyu
六藝綱目Liuyi gangmu(Yuan) 舒天民 Shu Tianmin
Modern Dictionaries
辭海 Cihai (Rep) 陸費逵 Lu Feikui, 舒新城 Shu Xincheng, 張相 Zhang Xiang (1st ed.)
辭源 Ciyuan (Rep) 陸爾奎 Lu Erkui, 方毅 Fang Yi, 傅運森 Fu Yunsen (1st ed.)
辭通 Citong (Rep) 朱起鳳 Zhu Qifeng
聯綿字典 Lianmian zidian (Rep) 符定一 Fu Dingyi
中華大字典 Zhonghua da zidian (Rep) 陸費逵 Lu Feikui, 歐陽溥存 Ouyang Bocun
中文大辭典 Zhongwen da cidian (ROC) 《中文大辭典》編纂委員會 Zhongwen da cidian bianzuan weiyuanhui
大辭典 Dacidian (ROC) 《大辭典》編纂委員會 Dacidian bianzuan weiyuanhui
中文大辭典 Zhongwen da cidian (PRC) 張其昀 Zhang Qiyun
漢語大詞典 Hanyu da cidian (PRC) 羅竹風 Luo Zhufeng et al.
漢語大字典 Hanyu da zidian (PRC) 《漢語大字典》編輯委員會 Hanyu da zidian bianji weiyuanhui
漢語詞典 Hanyu cidian (PRC) 《中國大辭典》編纂處 Zhongguo da cidian bianzuanchu
現代漢語詞典 Xiandai hanyu cidian (PRC) 中國社會科學院語言研究所詞典編輯室 Zhongguo shehui kexue yuan yuyan yanjiusuo cidian bianjishi
新華詞典 Xinhua cidian (PRC) 《新華詞典》編纂組 Xinhua cidian bianzuanzu
新華字典 Xinhua zidian (PRC) 魏建功 Wei Jiangong
大漢和辭典 Dai Kan-Wa jiten (Japan) 諸橋轍次 Morohashi Tetsuji

* not included in the imperial collectaneum Siku quanshu 四庫全書


February 17, 2011 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail
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