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Chinese Literature
Guangyun 廣韻 "Extended Rhymes"
The Guangyun Rhymes and the Pingshui Rhymes 平水韻


The Guangyun 廣韻 "Extended rhymes" is a character dictionary from the Northern Song period 北宋 (960-1126). The characters are arranged according to pronunciation, in rhyme groups. The whole title is Da-Song chongxiu Guangyun 大宋重修廣韻. It was compiled by Chen Pengnian 陳彭年 during the reign of Emperor Zhenzong 宋真宗 (r. 997-1022) on the base of earlier rhyme dictionaries, the Qieyun 切韻 and the Tangyun 唐韻, and thus perpetuated the system of arranging characters in rhyme groups. The Guangyun is the first government-issued rhyme dictionary in China. It is also the oldest rhyme dictionary surviving in total and therefore became an important tool for the study of ancient Chinese language, in this case, late middle Chinese.
The Guangyun is 5 juan "scrolls" long. The characters are arranged in 206 rhyme groups, namely 57 level tone rhymes (pingsheng 平聲, because of the length of this part divided into two series of 28 shang pingsheng 上平聲 from 東 to 山 and 29 xia pingsheng 下平聲 from 先 to 凡), 55 falling-rising tone rhymes (shangsheng 上聲), 60 falling tone rhymes (qusheng 去聲), and 34 entering tone rhymes (rusheng 入聲).
The Guangyun records 26,194 characters and explains their meaning. The characters are, below the level of rhyme groups, arranged in groups of homophones, of which 3,890 are existing.


Sources:
Cao Shujing 曹述敬 (1988). "Guangyun 廣韻", in: Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Yuyan wenzi 語言文字, pp. 115-116. Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe.
Cao Shujing 曹述敬 (1988). "Yunshu 韻書", in: Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Yuyan wenzi 語言文字, pp. 505-508. Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe.


The Guangyun 廣韻 rhymes and the reduction to the Pingshui rhymes 平水韻
The she 攝 rhyme groups are derived from Sankrit. For each of the four tones the rhyme groups are counted separately, the level tone series is divided into two. Numbers in brackets () indicate the absolute number of the 206 rhymes. During the Song period the rhyme groups were reduced to 106, indicated in square brackets []. For this process rhyme groups were merged, indicated with an arrow →. Four rhyme groups have been merged with quite distant groups (拯, 證 into 迥; 等 and 嶝 into 徑).
she 攝 rhymes IPA level tone pingsheng 平聲 falling-raising tone shangsheng 上聲 falling tone qusheng 去聲 entering tone rusheng 入聲
uŋ, ĭuŋ 1 [1] 東 1 (58) [31] 董 1 (113) [60] 送 1 (173) [90] 屋
uk, ĭuk
uoŋ 2 [2] 冬 2 (114) [61] 宋 2 (174) [91] 沃
uok
ĭωoŋ 3 鍾 → 冬 2 (59) [32] 腫 3 (115) 用 → 宋 3 (175) 燭 → 沃
ĭωok
ɔŋ, ωɔŋ 4 [3] 江 3 (60) [33] 講 4 (116) [62] 絳 4 (176) [92] 覺
ɔk, ωɔk
ĭe, ĭωe 5 [4] 支 4 (61) [34] 紙 5 (117) [63] 寘
i, ωi 6 脂 → 支 5 (62) 旨 → 紙 6 (118) 至 → 寘
ĭə 7 之 → 支 6 (63) 止 → 紙 7 (119) 志 → 寘
ĭəi, ĭωəi 8 [5] 微 7 (64) [35] 尾 8 (120) [64] 未
ĭo 9 [6] 魚 8 (65) [36] 語 9 (121) [65] 御
ĭu 10 [7] 虞 9 (66) [37] 麌 10 (122) [66] 遇
u, uo 11 模 → 虞 10 (67) 姥 → 麌 11 (123) 暮 → 遇
iei, iωei 12 [8] 齊 11 (68) [38] 薺 12 (124) [67] 霽
ĭɛi, ĭωɛi 13 (125) 祭 → 霽
ɑi, uɑi 14 (126) [68] 泰
ai, ωai 13 [9] 佳 12 (69) [39] 蟹 15 (127) [69] 卦
ɐi, ωɐi 14 皆 → 佳 13 (70) 駭 → 蟹 16 (128) 怪 → 卦
æi, ωæi 17 (129) 夬 → 卦
uɒi 15 [10] 灰 14 (71) [40] 賄 18 (130) [70] 隊
ɒi 16 咍 → 灰 15 (72) 海 → 賄 19 (131) 代 → 隊
ĭɐi, ĭωɐi 20 (132) 廢 → 隊
ĭěn, ĭωěn 17 [11] 眞 16 (73) [41] 軫 21 (133) [71] 震 5 (177) [93] 質
ĭět, ĭωět
ĭuěn 18 諄 → 眞 17 (74) 準 → 軫 22 (134) 稕 → 震 6 (178) 術 → 質
ĭuět
ĭen 19 臻 → 眞 7 (179) 櫛 → 質
ĭet
ĭuən 20 [12] 文 18 (75) [42] 吻 23 (135) [72] 問 8 (180) [94] 物
ĭuət
ĭən 21 欣 → 文 19 (76) 隱 → 吻 24 (136)焮 → 問 9 (181) 迄 → 物
ĭət
uən 22 魂 → 文 21 (77) 混 → 吻 26 (137) 慁 → 問 11 (182) 沒 → 物
uət
ən 23 痕 → 文 22 (78) 很 → 吻 27 (138) 恨 → 問
ĭɐn, ĭωɐn 24 [13] 元 20 (79) [43] 阮 25 (139) [73] 願 10 (183) [95] 月
ĭɐt, ĭωɐt
ɑn 25 [14] 寒 23 (80) [44] 旱 28 (140) [74] 翰 12 (184) [96] 曷
ɑt
uɑn 26 桓 → 寒 24 (81) 緩 → 旱 29 (141) 換 → 翰 13 (185) 末 → 曷
uɑt
an, ωan 27 [15] 刪 25 (82) [45] 潸 30 (142) [75] 諌 14 (186) [97] 黠
at, ωat
æn, ωæn 28 山 → 刪 26 (83) 產 → 潸 31 (143) 襉 → 諌 15 (187) 鎋 → 黠
æt, ωæt
ien, iωen 1 (29) [16] 先 27 (84) [46] 銑 32 (144) [76] 霰 16 (188) [98] 屑
iet, iωet
ĭɛn, ĭωɛn 2 (30) 仙 → 先 28 (85) 獮 → 銑 33 (145) 線 → 霰 17 (189) 薛 → 屑
ĭɛt, ĭωɛt
ieu 3 (31) [17] 蕭 29 (86) [47] 篠 34 (146) [77] 嘯
ĭɛu 4 (32) 宵 → 蕭 30 (87) 小 → 篠 35 (147) 笑 → 嘯
au 5 (33) [18] 肴 31 (88) [48] 巧 36 (148) [78] 效
ɑu 6 (34) [19] 豪 32 (89) [49] 皓 37 (149) [79] 號
ɑ 7 (35) [20] 歌 33 (90) [50] 哿 38 (150) [80] 箇
uɑ, ĭɑ, ĭuɑ 8 (36) 戈 → 歌 34 (91) 果 → 哿 39 (151) 過 → 箇
a, ĭa, ωa 9 (37) [21] 麻 35 (92) [51] 馬 40 (152) [81] 禡
ĭaŋ, ĭωaŋ 10 (38) [22] 陽 36 (93) [52]養 41 (153) [82] 漾 18 (190) [99] 藥
ĭak, ĭωak
ɑŋ, uɑŋ 11 (39) 唐 → 陽 37 (94) 蕩 → 養 42 (154) 宕 → 漾 19 (191) 鐸 → 藥
ɑk, uɑk
ɐŋ, ĭɐŋ, ωɐŋ, ĭωɐŋ 12 (40) [23] 庚 38 (95) [53] 梗 43 (155) [83] 敬 20 (192) [100] 陌
ɐk, ĭɐk, ωɐk, ĭωɐk
æŋ, ωæŋ 13 (41) 耕 → 庚 39 (96) 耿 → 梗 44 (156) 諍 → 敬 21 (193) 麥 → 陌
æk, ωæk
ĭɛŋ, ĭωɛŋ 14 (42) 清 → 庚 40 (97) 靜 → 梗 45 (157) 勁 → 敬 22 (194) 昔 → 陌
ĭɛk, ĭωɛk
ieŋ, iωeŋ 15 (43) [24] 靑 41 (98) [54] 迥 46 (158) [84] 徑 23 (195) [101] 錫
iek, iωek
ĭəŋ, ĭωəŋ 16 (44) [25] 蒸 42 (99) 拯 (> 迥) 47 (159) 證 (> 徑) 24 (196) [102] 職
ĭək, ĭωək
əŋ, uəŋ 17 (45) 登 → 蒸 43 (100) 等 (> 迥) 48 (160) 嶝 (> 徑) 25 (197) 德 → 職
ək, uək
ĭəu 18 (46) [26] 尤 44 (101) [55] 有 49 (161) [85] 宥
əu 19 (47) 侯 → 尤 45 (102) 厚 → 有 50 (162) 候 → 宥
iəu 20 (48) 幽 → 尤 46 (103) 黝 → 有 51 (163) 幼 → 宥
ĭěm 21 (49) [27] 侵 47 (104) [56] 寑 52 (164) [86] 沁 26 (198) [103] 緝
ĭěp
ɒm 22 (50) [28] 覃 48 (105) [57] 感 53 (165) [87] 勘 27 (199) [104] 合
ɒp
ɑm 23 (51) 談 → 覃 49 (106) 敢 → 感 54 (166) 鬫 → 勘 28 (200) 盍 → 合
ɑp
ĭɛm 24 (52) [29] 鹽 50 (107) [58] 琰 55 (167) [88] 豔 29 (201) [105] 葉
ĭɛp
iem 25 (53) 添 → 鹽 51 (108) 忝 → 琰 56 (168) {木+忝} → 豔 30 (202) 帖 → 葉
iep
ɐm 26 (54) [30] 咸 53 (109) [59] 豏 58 (169) [89] 陷 31 (203) [106] 洽
ɐp
am 27 (55) 銜 → 咸 54 (110) 檻 → 豏 59 (170) 鑑 → 陷 32 (204) 狎 → 洽
ap
ĭɐm 28 (56) 嚴 → 咸 52 (111) 儼 → 豏 57 (171) 釅 → 陷 33 (205) 業 → 洽
ĭɐp
ĭωɐm 29 (57) 凡 → 咸 55 (112) 梵 → 豏 60 (172) 范 → 陷 34 (206) 乏 → 洽
ĭωɐp
Exemplarious translation:

The first section is an overview of the characters or words included in the first rhyme group, 東 [duŋ˥]. It includes 34 series of homophones which are grouped under one heading character each, for which the pronunciation is given according to the fanqie system and the modern IPA system. Of the homophones only the characters are given here, but this is enough to give an impression of the whole system. It is interesting to see how many characters have since become obsolete and are not included in common modern digitalized fonts. These are described by mathematical operators in winged brackets {}. Some characters are to be found in two places, indicating that they have several different pronunciations.

The 34 groups of homophones in the rhyme group 東 [-ʊŋ˥]
1 【東】 德紅切 tuŋ 東 菄 鶇 {羊+東} {亻+涷} 倲 {飠+東} {忄+仝} 涷 蝀 凍 鯟 {彳+涷} 崠 埬 {蠡-彖+東} {東+鬼}
2 【同】 徒紅切 dʰuŋ 同 仝 童 僮 銅 桐 峒 硐 {舟+同} {豕+同} 筒 瞳 {甬+瓦} {同+瓦} 罿 犝 筩 潼 曈 洞 侗 橦 烔 {童+鳥} 挏 酮 鮦 {童+瓦} {羊+童} 眮 蕫 穜 衕 {革+童} {广/同} {穴/同} 哃 {弓+同} 絧 {同+阝} {童+阝} {鼓/角} {騰-月+虎} {騰-月+黑}
3 【中】 陟弓切 ţĭuŋ 中 衷 忠 {艹/中}
4 【蟲】 直弓切 ɖʰĭuŋ 蟲 沖 种 盅 爞 {艹/中} 翀
5 【終】 職戎切 tɕĭuŋ 終 衆 潨 {歹+冬} 螽 {虫+衆} 鼨 蔠 柊 {雨/衆} {冬+龜} 鴤 {竹+終} 泈 {豸+衆}
6 【忡】 敕中切 ţʰĭuŋ 忡 浺 盅
7 【崇】 鋤弓切 dʒʰĭuŋ 崇 崈 {崇+刂} {食+崇}
8 【嵩】 息弓切 sĭuŋ 嵩 崧 {鳥+戎} 娀 菘 硹 {彳+戎} {虫+戎} {髟-彡+戎}
9 【戎】 如融切 nʑĭuŋ 戎 {戈/甲} 茙 {木+戎} 駥 {竹/戎} {亻+戎} 狨 絨
10 【弓】 居戎切 kĭuŋ 弓 躳 躬 {氵+宮} 宮 匑
11 【融】 以戎切 jĭuŋ 融 融 肜 瀜
12 【雄】 羽弓切 ĭuŋ 雄 熊
13 【瞢】 莫中切 mĭuŋ 瞢 夢 {夢+邑} 懜 {夢+色} {夢+豕}
14 【穹】 去宮切 kʰĭuŋ 穹 {忄+宮} 焪 芎 {艹/宮} 匑 {筑/虫}
15 【窮】 渠弓切 gʰĭuŋ 窮 藭 {穴/(身+邑)}
16 【馮】 房戎切 bʰĭuŋ 馮 堸 汎 芃 {馮+阝} 渢 梵
17 【風】 方戎切 pĭuŋ 風 飌 楓 猦 偑 檒 {(雚+凡)/糸}
18 【豐】 敷隆切 pʰĭuŋ 豐 酆 蘴 灃 寷 麷 {亻+豐} {山+豐}
19 【充】 昌終切 tɕʰĭuŋ 充 珫 茺 {忄+充} {衣+充} {黃+充} {氵+充}
20 【隆】 力中切 lĭuŋ 隆 癃 {隆/鼓} 窿 霳】{隆-阝}
21 【空】 苦紅切 kʰuŋ 空 箜 崆 椌 硿 {禾+空} 悾 埪 倥 涳 鵼 {艹/空} {忄+空} {虫+空}
22 【公】 古紅切 kuŋ 公 功 工 疘 蚣 玒 釭 魟 攻 {工+刂} 愩 碽 篢
23 【蒙】 莫紅切 muŋ 蒙 冡 濛 {馬+蒙} 艨 {月+蒙} 矇 饛 {髟/蒙} 檬 {酉+蒙} {麥+蒙} {酉+(宓/皿)} 鸏 幪 罞 {巾+冡} 髳 蠓 {艹/蒙} 雺 霿 霚 朦 {宓/皿} 懜 靀
24 【籠】 盧紅切 luŋ 籠 豅 {龍/木} 朧 {龍/口} 龓 {革+龍} 瀧 聾 {車+龍} 礱 {禾+龍} {歹+龍} 嚨 蘢 櫳 {龍/瓦} 巃 襱 {衣+同} 瓏 曨 鸗 {食+龍} 蠪 {山+兇} 屸
25 【洪】 戸公切 ɣuŋ 洪 鉷 訌 紅 虹 仜 鴻 葒 葓 谼 {米+共} 烘 洚 渱 {阝+虫} 魟 {阝+共} {音+共} {工/羽} {風+工} {工+隹}
26 【叢】 徂紅切 dzʰuŋ 叢 藂 {艹/叢} 潨 {竹/聚}
27 【翁】 烏紅切 ʔuŋ 翁 螉 {魚+翁} 蓊 {竹/翁} {革+翁} {木+翁} {翁+頁}
28 【怱】 倉紅切 tsʰuŋ 怱 忩 葱 楤 {車+怱} 聦 繱 {王+怱} 騘 {虫+怱} 囱 {酉+(穴/怱)} 鍯 {火+怱} {广/怱}
29 【通】 他紅切 tʰuŋ 通 蓪 侗 恫 痌 曈 俑 {豸+同} {足+同}
30 【葼】 子紅切 tsuŋ 葼 鬷 嵕 猣 豵 鯼 椶 騣 {髟/怱} {足+從} 嵸 艐 蝬 堫 {堫-土+石} 翪 緵 {緵-糸} {緵-糸+彳} 稯 鬉
31 【蓬】 薄紅切 bʰuŋ 蓬 {竹/夆} 篷 髼 蜂 芃 {衣+夆} 韸 {馬+龍}
32 【烘】 呼東切 xuŋ 烘 叿 魟 谾 {音+共}
33 【{山+兇}】 五東切 ŋuŋ {山+兇}
34 【檧】 蘇公切 suŋ 檧 憽 {日+曾}

In the following section the first group of 17 homophones read [tuŋ] is presented in total, with the explanation of the characters. It can be seen that not all characters are treated in the same diligent way.

The 17 homophoneous words pronounced 東 [dʊŋ˥]
【東】春方也。《說文》曰:「動也。从日在木中。」亦東風菜。 《廣州記》云:「陸地生,莖赤,和肉作羹,味如酪,香似蘭。」 《吳都賦》云:「草則東風。」扶留又姓。舜七友有東不訾。又漢複姓十三氏。 《左傳》魯郷東門襄仲後因氏焉。齊有大夫東郭偃。又有東宮得臣。晉有東關嬖五。 《神仙傳》有廣陵人,東陵聖母適杜氏。齊景公時有隱居東陵者,乃以爲氏。 《丗本》宋大夫東郷爲[人]。 賈執《英賢傳》云:「今高密有東郷姓,宋有貟外郎,東陽無疑撰。 《齊諧記》七卷「昔有東閭子,甞富貴,後乞於道云:『吾爲相六年,未薦一士。』。」 夏禹之後,東樓公封于杞。後以爲氏。 《莊子》東野稷。 漢有平原東方朔。 《曹瞞傳》有南陽太守東里昆何氏。 《姓苑》有東萊氏。〖德紅切(tuŋ)〗。十七 。 The direction of Spring. The Shuowen jiezi says, "[East [dʊŋ˥] means] moving [dʊŋ˨˩]. [The character is a combination] of a sun within a tree." Also, the vegetables of the east wind. The Guangzhouji says, "it grows on solid earth, with red stalks of which a meat broth can be made, the taste is similar to yoghurt, and the fragrance like that of orchids." The [rhapsody] Wudufu says, "The grass is ruled [by the] east wind." The surname [of Dong] is known in Fuliu. Among the seven friends of Shun was a certain Dong Buzi. During the Han period there were still seventeen clans of that surname. In the Zuozhuan there was a certain Xiang Zhong from the east gate of the town of Lu. He was later given the surname of Dong. In the state of Qi there was a Grand Master called Dongguo Yan. There was also somebody from the Eastern Palace becoming a minister. In the state of Jin there were five secondary wives of the Eastern Pass. The Shenxianzhuan tells of a man from Guangling, surname Du, and realted to the Holy Mother of Dongling. During the reign of Duke Jing of Qi, there was a recluse called Dongling. Dongling had thus become a surname. According to the Shiben, there were noblemen of the state of Song with the [surname of] Dongxiang. Jia Zhi's Yingxianzhuan says, there is a surname Dongxiang in Gaomi, whose representants acted as court gentlemen for the Liu-Song dynasty (?). This must be [the surname of] Dongyang. The Qixieji, scroll 7, mentions that there was once a Master Donglü, who was extremely rich but later became a poor adoist adept, saying that "During the six years I was counsellor, I never was able to promote a worthy." The descendants of the Xia dynasty were enfeoffed as Dukes of Donglou. Later on this became a surname. The Zhuangzi mentions a certain Dong Yeji. During the Han period there was Dongfang Shuo from Pingyuan. The Biography of Cao Man records a family He from Donglikun, magistrates of Nanyang. The [family register] Xingyuan knows the surname of Donglai.
【菄】東風菜,義見上注,俗加艹 。 The vegetables of the east wind, meaning see above. In everyday use the radical "grass" is added.
【鶇】鶇鵍鳥名,美形。出《廣雅》,亦作{島-山+東}。 Donghuan, name of a bird; beautiful. Recorded in the Guangya, also written {島-山+東}.
【{羊+東}】獸名。《山海經》曰:「秦戲山有獸,狀如羊,一角一目,目在耳後,其名曰{羊+東}。」又音陳,音棟。 Name of a beast. The Shanhaijing says, "there is a beast in Mt. Xishan in the region of Qin which looks like a goat, but with [only] one horn and one eye, and the eye is behind the ears. It is called [duŋ]." Also read [tʂʰən] and [tʰʊŋ].
【{亻+涷}】儱倲儜劣皃,出《字諟》。 Longdong, weak and weary. Recorded in the Zidi [a dictionary by the Song period scholar Wang Bai 王柏].
【倲】上同。 Same as above.
【{飠+東}】《地理志》云:「東郡館名。」 The Dili zhi [which one?] says, name of an office in Dongjun commandery.
【{忄+仝}】古文,見道經。 Old word, to be found in Daoist writings.
【涷】瀧涷沾漬。《說文》曰:「水,出發鳩山,入於河。」又都貢切。 Longdong, moistening. The Shuowen jiezi says, a river, flowing from Mt. Fajiu, tributary to the Yellow River. Also read [dʊŋ˥˩].
【蝀】螮蝀虹也。又音董。 Daidung, the rainbow. Also read [dʊŋ˨˩]
【凍】凍凌。又都貢切。 Frozen. Also read [dʊŋ˥˩].
【鯟】魚名,似鯉。 Name of a fish, similar to a carp.
【{彳+涷}】行皃。 Walking.
【崠】崠如,山名。 Dongru, name of a mountain.
【埬】上埬,地名。 Shangdong, a place name.
【{蠡-彖+東}】蛞{蠡-彖+東},科斗蟲也。案:《爾雅》曰:「科斗活東。」郭璞云:「蝦蟆子也。」字俗從{虫+虫}。 Kuodong, same as kedou (tadpole). Note: The Erya says, tadpoles live in the east (dong). Guo Pu comments, these are the larvae of crabs. The character is commonly written with {虫+虫}.
【{東+鬼}】醜皃。 Ugly.

Translated by Ulrich Theobald.
Chinese literature according to the four-category system

July 17, 2010 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail