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Shiben 世本

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The Shiben 世本 "Generational records" is a collection of dynastic histories in antiquity, centering around the state of Jin 晉. It is transmitted in serval different versions of which the original texts were written during the Warring States period 戰國 (5th cent.-221 BCE). During the Tang period 唐 (618-907) it was also called Xiben 系本 or Daiben 代本, in order to avoid the character shi 世 which is part of the personal name of Emperor Taizong 唐太宗 (Li Shimin 李世民, r. 626-649). The Shiben reports the history from the mythical Yellow Emperor 黃帝 down to the late Spring and Autumn period 春秋 (770-5th cent. BCE), in originally 15 chapters (pian). Since the Han period 漢 (206 BCE-220 CE) there were different commentaries written to the Shiben, namely by Song Zhong 宋衷, Song Jun 宋均, Sun Jian 孫檢, and a certain Mr. Wang 王氏. The versions extant during the Tang period can be listed as follows:
  • Shiben wang hou dafu pu 世本王侯大夫譜 "Family registers of kings, marquesses and barons of the Shiben" in 2 juan
  • Shiben 世本 by Liu Xiang 劉向 in 2 juan
  • Shiben 世本 by Song Zhong 宋衷 in 4 juan
  • Dipu shiben 帝譜世本 "The Shiben with imperial family registers" by Song Jun 宋均 in 7 juan
  • commentary to the Shiben pu 世本譜 "Family registers of the Shiben" by Master Wang 王氏, in 2 juan
  • commentary to the Shiben 世本 by Master Sun 孫氏
  • Shiben bielu 世本別錄 "Another version of the Shiben" in 1 juan
The Shiben was in its original form already lost at the beginning of the Song period 宋 (960-1279), but the Song scholar Gao Sisun 高似孫 was in possession of a fragment collection. Qing period 清 (1644-1911) scholars likewise started collecting fragments, which led to eight different versions:

世本八種 Shiben bazhong
(PRC) 商務印書館 Commercial Press, 1957 (comp.)
書名, length in juan Title Author(s) Source
世本 一卷 Shiben (Han) 宋衷 Sun Zhong (comm.); (Qing) 王謨 Wang Mo (comp.) Han-Wei yishu chao 漢魏遺書抄
世本 一卷 Shiben (Han) 宋衷 Sun Zhong (comm.); (Qing) 孫馮翼 Sun Fengyi (comp.) Wenjingtang congshu 問經堂叢書
世本 二卷 Shiben (Han) 宋衷 Sun Zhong (comm.); (Qing) 孫馮翼 Sun Fengyi (comp.), 陳其榮 Chen Qitong (suppl.) Huailu congshu 槐廬叢書
世本 十卷 Shiben (Han) 應劭 Ying Shao (comm.); 宋衷 Sun Zhong (comm.); (Wei) 宋均 Song Jun (comm.); (Qing) 秦嘉謨 Qin Jiamo (comp.) Linlang xianguan chaoben 琳琅仙館抄本
世本 五卷 Shiben (Han) 宋衷 Song Zhong (comm.); (Qing) 張澎 Zhang Shu (comp.) Eryoutang congshu 二酉堂叢書
世本 二卷
(附)考證 一卷
app. Kaozheng
(Han) 宋衷 Song Zhong (comm.); (Qing) 雷學淇 Lei Xueqi (comp.) Jifu congshu 畿輔叢書
世本 一卷 Shiben (Han) 宋衷 Song Zhong (comm.); (Qing) 茆泮林 Mao Panlin (comp.) Shizhong guyi shu 十種古逸書
世本集覽 一卷 Shiben jilan (Qing) 王梓材 Wang Zicai Siming congshu 四明叢書
Shanghai tushuguan 上海圖書館 (ed. 1982), Zhongguo congshu zonglu 中國叢書綜錄, vol. 1, p. 650. Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe.

The versions of Sun, Zhang, Lei and Mao have been reprinted in the collectanea Congshu jicheng 叢書集成. All eight versions were published in 1957 by the Shangwu yinshuguan press 商務印書館 as Shiben bazhong 世本八種.
What is common to most of these versions is the existance of a chapters dealing with clan names (氏姓篇 Shixing pian), one dealing with the residences of the rulers (居篇 Ju pian), and one talking of the inventions the heroes of antiquity made (作篇 Zuo pian). How the rulers themselves are presented differs from version to version. Mostly they include the genealogies of the creators (the "Three Augusts" sanhuang 三皇) and the five mythical emperors (wudi 五帝), as well as that of what we understand as dynasties, namely the ruling houses of Xia 夏 (17th-15th cent. BCE), Shang 商 (17th-11th cent. BCE) and Zhou 周 (11th cent.-221 BCE). Except these rulers (wang 王 "king") most versions also list the genealogies of the regional rulers (hou 侯 "marquess" or "marquis"), some even their sidelines (qing dafu 卿大夫 "barons and nobles"). Which noble houses are listed differs from version to version. Totally different in arrangement is Wang Zicai's version which is strictly arranged in chronological order. The genealogies are therefore interrupted with the begin of a new age. For a better evaluation the names of the mythical emperors and that of the regional rulers and their sidelines are listed below.

王謨輯本 Wang Mo's version
1 三皇世系 Sanhuang shixi Genealogies of the Three Augusts (Fu Xi, Shen Nong, Huang Di)
2 五帝世系 Wudi shixi Genealogies of the Five Emperors (Shaohao, Zhuanxu, Diku, Yao, Shun)
3 夏世系 Xia shixi Genalogy of the Xia dynasty
4 商世系 Shang shixi Genealogy of the Shang dynasty
5 周世系 Zhou shixi Genealogy of the Zhou dynasty
6 春秋列國公侯世系 Chunqiu lieguo gonghou shixi The dukes and marquesses of the states of the Spring and Autumn period
7 春秋列國卿大夫世系 Chunqiu lieguo qingdafu shixi The nobles of the states of the Spring and Autumn period
8 氏姓篇 Shixing pian Clan names
9 居篇 Ju pian Residences
10 作篇 Zuo pian Inventions
孫馮翼集本 Sun Fengyi's version
1 作篇 Zuo pian Inventions
2 居篇 Ju pian Residences
3 氏姓篇 Shixing pian Clan names
4 王侯大夫譜 Wang hou dafu pu Genealogies of the kings, marquesses and nobles: [mythical emperors and kings], 魯 Lu, 宋 Song, 晉 Jin, 齊 Qi, 衛 Wei, 吳 Wu, 楚 Chu, 鄭 Zheng, 陳 Chen, 杞 Qi (2), 滕 Teng, 燕 Yan
陳其榮增訂世本 Chen Qirong's supplement version
1 作篇 Zuo pian Inventions
2 居篇 Ju pian Residences
3 氏姓篇 Shixing pian Clan names
4 帝系篇 Dixi pian Genealogies of the mythical emperors [and kings]
5 王卿大夫譜 Wang qing dafu pu Genalogies of the nobles: 魯 Lu, 齊 Qi, 晉 Jin, 宋 Song, 衛 Wei, 秦 Qin, 楚 Chu, 陳 Chen, 杞 Qi (2), 鄭 Zheng, 蔡 Cai, 薛 Xue, 曹 Cao, 吳 Wu, 越 Yue
秦嘉謨輯補本 Qin Jiamo's enlarged version
1 帝繫篇 Dixi pian Genealogies of the [mythical] emperors
2 紀 Ji Biographies of the [mythical] emperors and kings
3 王侯譜 Wanghou pu Genealogies of the imperial resp. royal houses
4 世家 Shijia Biographies of the regional rulers: 吳太伯世家 Wu Taibo, 齊太公世家 Qi Taigong, 魯周公世家 Lu Zhougong, 燕召公世家 Yan Shaogong, 蔡世家 Cai, 陳世家 Chen, 杞世家 Qi (2), 衛世家 Wei, 曹世家 Cao, 宋世家 Song, 晉世家 Jin, 秦世家 Qin, 楚世家 Chu, 越世家 Yue, 鄭世家 Zheng, 趙世家 Zhao, 魏世家 Wei2, 韓世家 Han, 田敬仲完世家 Tian Jingzhong Wan, 許世家 Xu, 滕世家 Teng, 薛世家 Xue, 邾世家 Zhu, 小邾世家 Xiaozhu, 莒世家 Ju
5 大夫譜 Dafu pu Genealogies of the nobles (viz. the regional rulers): 魯 Lu, 齊 Qi, 晉 Jin, 秦 Qin, 楚 Chu, 宋 Song, 衛 Wei, 陳 Chen, 蔡 Cai, 曹 Cao, 鄭 Zheng, 燕 Yan
6 傳 Zhuan Biographies [of the lower nobility]
7 氏姓篇 Shixing pian Clan names
8 居篇 Ju pian Residences
9 作篇 Zuo pian Inventions
10 謚法 Shifa Rules for posthumous titles
張澎稡集補注本 Zhang Shu's supplemented version
1 作篇 Zuo pian Inventions
2 居篇 Ju pian Residences
3 氏姓篇 Shixing pian Clan names
4 帝繫篇 Dixi pian Imperial genealogies: 三皇譜 Sanhuang (Fu Xi, Shen Nong, Huang Di), 五帝譜 Wudi (Shao Hao, Zhuan Xu, Di Ku, Yao, Shun), 夏譜 Xia, 商譜 Shang, 周譜 Zhou
5 王侯大夫譜 Wang hou dafu pu Genealogies of the marquesses and nobles: 魯譜 Lu, 宋譜 Song, 齊譜 Qi, 衛譜 Wei, 秦譜 Qin, 晉譜 Jin, 鄭譜 Zheng, 陳譜 Chen, 蔡譜 Cai, 楚譜 Chu, 韓譜 Han, 趙譜 Zhao, 魏譜 Wei2, 吳譜 Wu, 燕譜 Yan, 杞譜 Qi (2), 滕譜 Teng, 曹譜 Cao, 邾譜 Zhu, 郯譜 Tan
雷學淇校輯本 Lei Xueqi's commented version
1 帝繫 Dixi Genealogies of the [mythical] emperors: Xuanyuan (Huangdi), Zhuanxu, Diku, Yao, Shun
2 王侯 Wanghou Genealogies of kings and marquesses: 夏世 Xia, 商世 Shang, 周世 Zhou, 魯世 Lu, 齊世 Qi, 燕世 Yan, 蔡世 Cai, 曹世 Cao, 衛世 Wei, 滕世 Teng, 邾世 Zhu, 晉世 Jin, 許世 Xu, 陳世 Chen, 杞世 Qi, 宋世 Song, 吳世 Wu, 楚世 Chu, 秦世 Qin, 鄭世 Zheng, 魏世 Wei2, 韓世 Han, 趙世 Zhao, 田齊世 Tian-Qi
3 卿大夫 Qing dafu Genealogies of barons: Ministers of 周臣世 Zhou, 陳臣世 Chen, 宋臣世 Song, 魯臣世 Lu, 齊臣世 Qi, 衛臣世 Wei, 晉臣世 Jin, 楚臣世 Chu, 鄭臣世 Zheng
4 氏姓 Shixing Clan names
5 謚法 Shifa Rules for posthumous titles
6 居 Ju Residences
7 作 Zuo Inventions
茆泮林輯本 Mao Palin's version
1 帝王世本 Diwang shiben Genealogies of the [mythical] emperors and kings: Huangdi, Shaohao, Zhuanxu, Diku, Yao, Shun, Xia, Yin (Shang), Zhou
2 諸侯世本 Zhuhou shiben Genealogies of the regional rulers: 魯 Lu, 齊 Qi, 晉 Jin, 秦 Qin, 楚 Chu, 宋 Song, 衛 Wei, 陳 Chen, 蔡 Cai, 曹 Cao, 鄭 Zheng, 燕 Yan, 吳 Wu, 杞 Qi (2), 滕 Teng, 韓 Han, 趙 Zhao, 魏 Wei2, 田齊 Tian-Qi, 莒 Ju, 邾 Zhu, 隨 Sui, 鄶 Kuai, 舒鮑 Shubao, 空桐 Kongtong, 黎 Li, 比 Bi, 髦 Mao, 朸 Li, 段 Duan, 瓦 Wa, 鐵 Tie, 蜀 Shu
3 卿大夫世本 Qing dafu shiben Genealogies of the nobles
4 氏姓篇 Shixing pian Clan names
5 居篇 Ju pian Residences
6 作篇 Zuo pian Inventions
10 謚法 Shifa Rules for posthumous titles
王梓材撰本 Wang Zicai's version
1 皇古 Huanggu The age of highest antiquity
2 帝世 Dishi The generations of the [mythical] emperors [and the Xia and Shang dynasties]
3 王朝 Wangchao The age of the [Zhou] dynasty
4 雜錄 Zalu Miscellaneous records

Source: Fang Shiming 方詩銘 (1992), "Shiben 世本", in Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Zhongguo lishi 中國歷史 (Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), Vol. 2, p. 942.

July 3, 2010 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail
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