An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History and Literature

Tongzili 童子禮

Sep 21, 2013 © Ulrich Theobald

Tongzili 童子禮 "Etiquette for young boys" is a text for primary education written by the Ming-period 明 (1368-1644) scholar Tu Xiying 屠羲英 (jinshi degree 1556), style Chunqing 淳卿.

The book is divided into twelve chapters that describe different types of comportment in different situations, beginning with washing and combing, ordering clothes, greeting by lifting and folding hands, or by kneeling down and kowtowing, to general types of decent behavior while standing, sitting, walking speaking, listening and eating. The text describes how to serve a father and an older brother, and how to take over responsibility outside a family. This is explained in eleven different kinds of situations, like springkling water and weeping the ground, replying to answers, entering and leaving a room, to express tender affection and inquiring after one's parents, presenting food, or serving and accompanying them. The last part of the text is dedicated to the conduct while studying books and doing one's job, when taking it over, during different times of the day, when meeting each other, reading books, or writing texts.

The Tongzili is to be found in the series Yangzheng leibian 養正類編.

Jiaoyu da cidian bianzuan weiyuanhui 《教育大辭典》編纂委員會, ed. (1991). Jiaoyu da cidian 教育大辭典, Part 8, Zhongguo gudai jiaoyu shi 中國古代教育史 (Shanghai: Shanghai jiaoyu chubanshe), Vol. 1, 214.