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Chinese Literature
Tongzhi tiaoge 通制條格, the Yuan Code


The Four Categories of Literature
Tongzhi tiaoge 通制條格 "Legislative articles from the Comprehensive Regulations" is a collection of jurisdictional edicts and of laws from the Yuan period 元 (1279-1368). It was part of the collection Da-Yuan tongzhi 大元通制 "Comprehensive regulations of the great Yuan dynasty", the law code of the Yuan. In 1271 Emperor Shizu 元世祖 (Qubilai Qan, r. 1260-1294) decided to discontinue the law of the Jin dynasty 金 (1115-1234) which were still in use until that date and ordered the compilation of a new law code for the Yuan dynasty. Only in 1291 he was able to issue the Zhiyuan xinge 至元新格 "New rules from the Zhiyuan reign", although it did not cover all aspects of jurisdiction, especially not those for the provincial administration. Administrative law was therefore dealt with in case-to-case edicts issued by the emperor. Only when Emperor Renzong 元仁宗 (r. 1311-1320) ascended to the throne he had all edicts collected concerning the field not yet covered by the law code. The decisions in the edicts were revised and amended, but it took a lot of time until Emperor Yingzong 元英宗 (r. 1320-1323) was finally able to issue the complete code Da-Yuan tongzhi in 1323. This code consists of 88 juan "scrolls" and is modeled after the two law codes of the Jin period, the Taihe lüling 泰和律令 "Criminal and administrative law of the Taihe reign" and the Taihe lüyi 泰和律義 "Explanation of the criminal code of the Taihe reign". Unfortunatley the code is lost except the chapter Tongzhi tiaoge which is preserved in fragments as a Ming period 明 (1368-1644) manuscript in 22 juan. It was published in 1930 by the National Library of Beiping 國立北平圖書館 in Beijing. The laws do not largely alter that common during the Tang 唐 (618-907), Song 宋 (960-1279) and Jin periods, a fact which shows that the Yuan dynasty perpetuated the legal tradition of the preceding dynasties. Some laws have the character of temporary and case-related regulations but can be used as well as precedents for similar cases. The Tongzhi tiaoge is an important source material for the study of the administrative and social history of the Yuan period.

Contents
戶令 Huling Administration of households
學令 Xueling Administration of schools
選舉 Xuanju Examination and promotion
軍防 Junfang Military and defense
儀制 Yizhi The system of rituals
衣服 Yifu Court robes
祿令 Luling Administration of tallies
倉庫 Shiku Granaries and arsenals
厩牧 Jiumu Stables and pastures
田令 Tianling Administration of fields
賦役 Fuyi Tax and corvée service
關市 Guanshi Passes and markets
捕亡 Buwang Arrestation of escaped prisoners
賞令 Shangling Administration of rewards
醫藥 Yiyao Medicine and pharmacology
雜令 Zaling Miscellaneous administrative matters
僧道 Sengdao Buddhism and Daoism
營繕 Yingshan Garrisons

Source: Yao Dali 姚大力 (1992), "Tongzhi tiaoge 通制條格", in Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Zhongguo lishi 中國歷史 (Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), Vol. 2, p. 1147.

July 3, 2010 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail
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