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Taiping huanyu ji 太平寰宇記

Oct 14, 2010 © Ulrich Theobald

Taiping huanyu ji 太平寰宇記 "Imperial geography from the Taiping [xingguo] reign-period (976-983)" is a geographical overview of the Northern Song empire 北宋 (960-1126). The 200-juan long book, authorship of which is attributed to Yue Shi 樂史 Yue Shi (930-1007), courtesy name Zizheng 子正, describes the provinces (dao 道 "circuits") of the empire, the historical development, physical geography with rivers and mountains, customs and habits of the inhabitants, traffic, eminent persons and families, local products, and so on.

The last part of the book treats foreign tribes and countries, but in a historical perspective. It thus includes tribes like the Xiongnu 匈奴 who had long vanished.

Primary sources for the Taiping huanyu ji were histories, books on local geography, literature, tombstone inscriptions, poetry and religious writings, all in all more than 200 books. Because a large part of these books are long since lost the quotations in the Taiping geography are important to have a better insight into the sources of the Tang 唐 (618-907) and Five Dynasties 五代 (907-960) periods.

This Northern Song geography is also of great importance because it contains a lot of information on the household registers in all regions of the empire which provides a better insight into the distribution and composition of the population.

There is a print by the Jinling Shuju Press 金陵書局 from the late 19th century. Some lost chapters are preserved in a fragment stored in Japan which has been republished in the series Guyi congshu 古逸叢書.

Table 1. Contents of the Taiping huanyu ji 太平寰宇記
1-24 Circuit of Henan 河南道 (juan 4 missing)
25-39 Circuit of Guanxi 關西道
40-51 Circuit of Hedong 河東道
52-71 Circuit of Hebei 河北道
72-81 Circuit of Jiannan-Xi 劍南西道
82-88 Circuit of Jiannan-Dong 劍南東道
89-102 Circuit of Jiangnan-Dong 江南東道
103-122 Circuit of Jiangnan-Xi 江南西道 (juan 113-119 missing)
123-132 Circuit of Huainan 淮南道
133-141 Circuit of Shannan-Xi 山南西道
142-149 Circuit of Shannan-Dong 山南東道
150-156 Circuit of Longyou 隴右道
157-171 Circuit of Lingnan 嶺南道
172-175 The Barbarians of the Four Directions 四夷總序. Barbarians of the East 東夷總述: Chosŏn 朝鮮, Hui 濊國, Paekche 百濟國, Samhan 三韓國, Koguryŏ 高句麗國, Silla 新羅國, Japan 倭國, Fuyu 夫餘國, Xiayi 蝦夷國, Dongwoju 東沃沮國, Yilou 挹婁國, Huji 勿吉國, Fusang 扶桑國, Women's Country 女國, Wenshen 文身國, Dahan 大漢國, Liuqiu (Taiwan) 流求國
176-179 Barbarians of the South 南蠻總述. Outside of the empire 徼外南夷: Huangzhi 黄支國, Geluo 哥羅國, Linyi 林邑國, Funan 扶南國, Dunxun 頓遜國, Pisai 毗騫國, Yutuoli 于拖利國, Langyaxiu 狼犽修國, Boli 婆利國, Panpan 槃槃國, Red Soil Country 赤土國, Zhenla 真臘國, Luosha 羅刹國, Touhe 投和國, Dandan 丹丹國, four countries of Biandou 邊斗四國, Shepu 社薄國, Pujiazhou 薄郟洲國, Volcano Land 火山國, Wulun 無論國, Podeng 婆登國, Wudu 烏篤國, Nutuohuan 傉陀洹國, Keling 訶陵國, Duomie 多篾國, Duomochang 多摩長國, Geluoshefen 哥羅舎分國, barbarians outside of the southwestern lands 松外諸蕃, Shunai 殊柰國, Gantang 甘棠國, Jinlipi 金利毗逝國, Piao (Pyu) 驃國, Zhanbi 占畢國. Inside the empire 徼内南蠻: Panhu 盤瓠, Linjun 廩君, Man of Bandun 板楯蠻, Man of Nanping 南平蠻, Man of Dongxie 東謝蠻, Man of Xizhao 西趙蠻, Zangke 牂牁, Southern Man of Liaogai 獠蓋南蠻, Yelang 夜郎國, Dian 滇國, Qiongdu 邛都, Zuoguo 莋國, Ranlong 冉駹, Fuguo 附國, Eastern Women's Country 東女國, Ailao 哀牢國, Jiaoyao 焦僥國, Changuo 禪國, Xicuan 西爨國, Kunmi 昆彌國, Weipu 尾濮國, Pu of Mumian 木綿濮, Pu of Wenmian 文面濮, Pu of Chikou 赤口濮, Pu of Zheyao 折腰濮, Black-Bo Pu 黑僰濮, Zhancheng (Champa) 占城國, Boni 渤泥國
180-188 Barbarians of the West 西戎總述: Cheshi 車師國, Qiang of Congruo 葱婼羌, Loulan 樓蘭國, Qiemo 且末國, Yumi 扜彌國, Qiuci 龜茲國, Yanqi 焉耆國, Yutian (Khotan) 于闐國, Shule 疎勒國, Mimi 迷密國, Wusun 烏孫國, Gumo 姑墨國, Wensu 溫宿國, Wucha 烏秅國 (Wutuo 烏托), Nandou 難兜國, Dayuan 大宛國, Shache 莎車國, Jibin 罽賓國, Kangju 康居國, Caoguo 曹國, Miguo 米國, Heguo 何國, Shiguo 史國, Yancai 奄蔡國, Huaguo 滑國, Yada 嚈噠國, Tianzhu (India) 天竺國, Wuchang 烏萇國, Cheli 車離國, Lion Country 師子國, Gaofu 高附國, Daqin (Syria) 大秦國, Dwarf Country 小人國, Wuyishanli 烏弋山離國, Tiaozhi 條支國, Anxi (Parthia) 安息國, Lesser Anxi 小安息國, Daxia (Bactria) 大夏國, Greater Yuezhi 大月氏國, Lesser Dayue 小月氏國, Dangxiang 黨項, Bailan 白蘭國, Baigou 白狗國, Tufan (Tibet) 吐蕃, Dayangtong 大羊同國, Xili 悉立國, Zhangqiuba 章求拔國, Nipoluo 泥婆羅國, Xuanqu 軒渠國, Santong 三童國, Zesan 澤散國, Lufen 驢分國, Jiankun 堅昆國, Hude 呼得國, Dingling 丁令國, Short People Country 短人國, Bosi (Persia) 波斯國, Yueban 悦般國, Fuluni 伏盧尼國, Zhujubo 朱俱波國, Kepantuo 渴槃陁國, Suli 粟弋國, Agouqiang 阿鈎羌國, Fuhuo 副貨國, Diefuluo 疊伏羅國, Shemi 賖彌國, Shiguo 石國, Seni 瑟匿國, Women's Country 女國, Tokhara 吐火羅國, Julan 俱蘭國, Renguo 刼國, Aluoyiluo 阿羅伊羅國, Yuediyan 越底延國, Dashi (Arabia?) 大食國. Six countres inside the passes 塞内六國: Qiang Wuyi 羌無弋, Di of Huangzhongyue 湟中月氐, Di 氐, Tuyuhun 吐谷渾, Yifudi 乙佛敵, Yanchang 巖昌國, Qiang of Dengzhi 鄧至羌
189-200 Barbarians of the north 北狄總述: Xiongnu 匈奴, Southern Xiongnu 南匈奴, Wuhuan 烏桓, Xianbei 鮮卑, Tuoba 拓跋氏, Ruanruan 蠕蠕, Kebineng 軻比能, Yuwen Mohuai 宇文莫槐, Tu'aduan 徒阿段, Morong 慕容氏, Gaoche 高車, Jihu 稽胡, Türks 突厥, Western Türks 西突厥, Tiele 鐵勒, Xueyantuo 薛延陀, Geluolu (Qarluq) 歌邏祿國, Pugu 僕骨, Tongluo 同羅, Dubo 都波, Bayegu 拔野古, Duolange 多濫葛, Huxue 斛薛, Adie 阿跌, Qibi Wing 契苾羽, Juguo 鞠國, Yujie 榆{木介}國, Damo 大謨國, Baixi 白霫國, Kumoxi 庫莫奚, Kitans 契丹, Shiwei 室韋, Didouzi 地豆子, Wuluohou 烏落侯, Qudumei 驅度寐, Xi 霫, Baximi 拔悉彌, Liugui 流鬼, Huihe (Uyghurs) 回紇, Xiajiasi (Qirqiz) 黠戛斯, Gulihan 骨利幹, Jiaoma 駮馬, Demon Country 鬼國, downfall of the Türkish khanate 突厥失國
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