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Chinese Literature
Manzhou jishen jitian dianli 滿洲祭神祭天典禮


The Four Categories of Literature
(Qinding) Manzhou jishen jitian dianli (欽定)滿洲祭神祭天典禮 "(Imperially Endorsed) Canonical Rites of Manchurian Offerings to the Spirits and Heaven" is a ritual compendium compiled on imperial order in 1747 under the supervision of Prince Yūnlu (Yunlu 允祿, 1695-1767), Agūi (Agui 阿桂, 1717-1797), and Yu Mingzhong 于敏中 (1714-1779). The 6-juan long book, written in Manchu language, was presented to the throne in 1747, and only translated into Chinese in 1777, yet with a length of only 4 juan. The book has 41 chapters that instruct ritual performers of all liturgic details, including objects and implements (juan 5, illustrations in juan 6), and formulas and chants to be recited. The book regulated the time, arrangements, sacrificial objects, liturgies and the wording of the various ceremonies for the sacrifices to Buddhist deities and Jurchen ancestral spirits. It includes the texts of more than 40 chants and some illustrations of sacrificial vessels which are not found in the book Da-Qing tongli 大清通禮. The Chinese version is included in the collectanea Liaohai congshu 遼海叢書 and the Siku quanshu 四庫全書.
A short alternative to this official book, called Bieben Manzhou jitian jishen dianli 別本滿洲祭天祭神典禮 or Manzhou sili ji 滿洲四禮集 "Collection of the four types of rites of the Manchus", was privately written by Suninggan (Suning'an 索寧安) and finished in 1796. It descibes, through the year, the traditional sacrifices of the Manchu people and the many customs involved, like brewing wine, making rice cakes and many other dishes, or papercuts. The book closes with illustrations of tools and a song in Manchu language. It was printed in 1801 by the Shengfei/Xingfei Hall 省非堂 and is described in the Xuxiu siku quanshu tiyao 續修四庫全書提要.


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Sources: Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文郁, ed. (1996). Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 1, 1452. Gao Wende 高文德, ed. (1995). Zhongguo shaoshu minzu shi da cidan 中國少數民族史大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin jiaoyu chubanshe), 1671, 2393. Wang Honggang王宏剛 (2002). "Qinding Manzhou jishen jitian dianli 欽定滿洲祭神祭天典禮" , in Zhongguo yuanshi zongjiao baike quanshu bianzuan weiyuanhui 《中國原始宗教百科全書》編纂委員會, ed. Zhongguo yuanshi zongjiao baike quanshu 中國原始宗教百科全書 (Chengdu: Sichuan cishu chubanshe), 549. Wu Feng 吳楓 , ed. (1987). Jianming Zhongguo guji cidian 簡明中國古籍辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 632.

December 21, 2013 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail
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