An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History and Literature

Zhongshu zhengkao 中樞政考

Feb 27, 2011 © Ulrich Theobald

Zhongshu zhengkao 中樞政考 "Treatises on the management of military affairs" (literally: of the central and important) is a compendium on military administration of the Qing period 清 (1644-1911) compiled on imperial order by a team of scholars under the supervision of Ortai (Ch. E'ertai 鄂爾泰, 1677-1745).

The book was finished in 1741. In 31 juan, the book lists the administrative and judicial regulations for the Chinese Green Standard troops (lüqi 綠旗) and the Eight Banners (baqi 八旗) covering all aspects of the state officials, bestowing of titles of nobility, household managment, granaries, field systems, the military administration, postal system, passes and fords, rules to deal with bandits and miscellaneous misdoings.

The Eight Banner section furthermore includes regulations for the imperial palace guard, the procurement of horses and the construction of palace buildings. The Green Standards section includes regulations for the grain transport on the Imperial Canal as well as for the native chieftains.

A third part explains special regulations of the Eight Banners. The three parts are numbered according to three different systems (Celestial Stems, natural materials and moral conduct) to enable a quicker search in the book. The Zhongshu zhengkao can be seen as an extract of the regulations in the Da-Qing huidian 大清會典.

The Xu zhongshu zhengkao 續中樞政考 is a modernized version of the Zhongshu zhengkao. It was compiled on imperial order by a team of scholars under the supervision of Mingliyang (Ch. Mingliang 明亮, 1736-1822). The 72-juan long Xu zhengkao was finished in 1824. The first part deals with regulations for the Eight Banners, the second part with those for the Chinese Green Standard troops. A supplement to this edition was published in 1832, including 4 juan, the first covering aspects of the Banners, the other three aspects of the Green Standards.

Table 1. Chapters of the Zhongshu zhengkao 中樞政考
1741 edition
First Series (Green Standards) Second Series (Eight Banners) 八旗則例 Baqi zeli Regulations for the Eight Banners
chapters position (Celestial Stem and no. of juan) position (material and no. of juan) position (moral conduct and no. of juan)
職制 Appointment and number of posts 甲乙 1-2 金 1 忠 1
公式 Temporary appointment and demotion, bookkeeping, reports 丙 3 石 2 忠 2
戶役 or 戶口 Household administration 丁 4 絲 3 孝 3
俸餉 Military pay 孝 4
倉庫 Grain and monetary affairs 丁 5 絲 4 孝 5
學政 Education 孝 6
典禮 Canonic rites and etiquette, social affairs 廉 7
兵制 Staffing different types of units 廉 8
漕運 Grain transport system 丁 6
田宅 Field allotment 戊 7 絲 5
儀制 Etiquette, social affairs 戊 8 絲 6
馬政 Horse administration 戊 9 土 11 廉 9
禁令 Prohibitions 廉 10
訓練 Training 節 11
駐防 Regulations for provincial Banner Garrisons 節 12
宮衛 Palace guard 土 9
郵驛 Postal system 己 10 土 10
關津 Passes and fords 庚 11 革 12
軍政 Military service and military law 辛 12 竹瓠 7-8
土番 Native troops 辛 13
盜賊 Constabulary service 壬 14 革 13
營造 Manufacturing and craftsmanship 癸 15 革 14
雜犯 Miscellaneous delicts 癸 16 木 15
1824 edition
八旗 Baqi Eight Banners 綠營 Luying Green Standard troops
品級 Ranks of officers 1 1
營制 Regulations concerning the garrisons 1
開例 Ranks that can fill a vacancy of a higher post 1 1
京營 Regulations for the Capital garrisons 1
補放 Filling vacancies 2-4
銓政 Regulations for appointment 2
題調 Selection of garrison commanders 3
水師 Naval forces 4
門衛 Gate guards 4
邊俸 Border defence 4
揀選 Regulations for the selection to fill vacancies 5
保舉 Promotion of replacement persons 5
考拔 Filling vacancies of lower official posts 5
奏派 Replacement persons for dispatched officials 5
封廕 Interitance of ranks 5
改武 Appointment of civilians to military posts 5
世職 Interitance of posts 6
封贈 Ennoblement 6
襲廕 Inheritance of posts 6
程限 Time limits to take over an appointment 6
開缺 Vacancies 7
親老 Leave for family reasons 7
土番 Native auxiliary troops 8 7
儀制 Etiquette and social affairs 7 8
通例 General regulations 8 8
公式 Temporary appointment and demotion 9-12 9-12
禁令 Prohibitions 13 13
宮衛 Palace guard 14
倉庫 Grain and monetary affairs 14 14
俸餉 Military pay 15 14
戶口 Household administration 16 15
田宅 Field allotment 17 15
承催 Regulations for handling of monetary transfers and copying with errors 17 16
漕運 Grain transport system 17-18
營伍 Personal offences by soldiers 18 19-20
軍政 Miliary service and military law 19 20
議功 Proposals for promotion because of military acheivements 21-22 21
關津 Passes and fords 22 23
巡洋 Maritime border inspection 22 22-23
緝捕 Arrestation of thieves and bandits 23 24
雜犯 Miscellaneous delicts 24-26 25
八旗馬 Horses of the Eight Banners 27
駐防馬 Horses of the provincial Banner garrisons 28
綠營馬 Horses of the Green Standard troops 26
牧馬 Pasturing horses 26
馬禁 Prohibitions concerning horses 26
驛額 Numbers of personnel and horses in postal stations 27-31
驛費 Expenditure of postal stations 31-33
驛遞 Forwarding mail in postal stations 33
給驛 Allocation of horses to staff and troops 34
限期 Time restrictions 35
郵禁 Prohibitions concerning mail 35
驛站責成 Management of postal stations 36
郵符 Special envoys and tallies 36
疆護 Strong escorts 36
坐臺 Service in stations as imposition of officials 37
鑾儀衛支更 Watchmen of the Imperial Procession Guard 37
訓練 Training 28-29
兵制 Staffing different types of units 30-31 37-38
考試 Examinations 39
營造 Manufacturing and craftsmanship 32 40
Arrangement by Ulrich Theobald, following the Gugong zhenben congkan edition 故宮珍本叢刊 from 2000 (Haikou: Hainan chubanshe, Vols. 323-329).
Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文鬰, ed. (1996). Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 1, 1444, 1445.
Wu Feng 吳楓, ed. (1987). Jianming Zhongguo guji cidian 簡明中國古籍辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 127.