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Longsha jilüe 龍沙紀略

Oct 5, 2019 © Ulrich Theobald

Longsha jilüe 龍沙紀略 is a book on northeast China written during the early Qing period 清 (1644-1911) by Fang Shiji 方式濟, courtesy name Woyuan 沃園, from Tongcheng 桐城, Anhui. The term Longsha is derived from the biography of Ban Chao 班超 (32-102 CE) in the official dynastic history Houhanshu 後漢書, where it denoted the regions beyond the Chinese empire (saiwai 塞外 "beyond the passes"). In 1711, the author's father Fang Dengyi 方登嶧 was exiled to the northeast because he had insulted the dynasty, and lived for many years in the garrison of Bukui 戍卜魁 (today's Qiqiha'er 齊齊哈爾, Heilongjiang).

The book is the result of Fang Shiji's observations he made when visiting his father. It describes the geography, administration, military, agriculture, customs and habits, food, taxes and tributes, local products and buildings of the region, altogether in nine chapters. It is the earliest surviving reliable report on Heilongjiang, and is in many points a valuable supplement to the official local gazetteer Shengjing tongzhi 盛京通志.

It is included in the series Siku quanshu 四庫全書, Shugutang shiji 述本堂詩集, Jieyueshanfang huichao 借月山房彙抄, Xiaofanghuzhai yudi congchao 小方壺齋輿地叢鈔 and Zhaodai congshu 昭代叢書, as well as the modern series Longjiang sanji 龍江三記 and Heishui congshu 黑水叢書.

Table 1. Contents of the Longsha jilüe 龍沙紀略
方隅門 Geography
山川門 Topography
經制門 Administration
時令門 Agricultural activities
風俗門 Customs and habits
飲食門 Food
貢賦門 Tributes and taxes
物產門 Local products
屋宇門 Buildings
Sources:
Fang Yan 方衍 (1982). "Longsha jilüe kaoshu 《龍沙紀略》考述", Xuexi yu tansuo 學習與探索, 1982 (12).
Gao Deming 高文德, ed. (1995). Zhongguo shaoshu minzu shi da cidian 中國少數民族史大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin jiaoyu chubanshe), 500.
Heilongjiang baike quanshu bianzuan weiyuanhui 《黑龍江百科全書》編纂委員會, Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe bianjibu 《中國大百科全書》出版社編輯部, ed. (2007). Heilongjiang baike quanshu 黑龍江百科全書 (Beijing: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), 65.
Wang Zhaoming 王兆明, Fu Langyun 傅朗云, ed. (1991). Zhonghua gu wenxian da cidian 中華古文獻大辭典, Vol. Dili 地理卷 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 82.
Xue Huanxue 薛歡雪, Yan Chao 閆超, Liu Xiaofeng 劉曉峰, Sui Guiling 隋桂玲 (2018). "Longsha jilüe de bianzhuan ji jiazhi yanjiu 《龍沙紀略》的編撰及價值研究", Hebei keji tuyuan 河北科技圖苑, 2018 (11).
Zhang Taixiang 張泰湘, Wu Wenxian 吳文銜 (1979). "Fang Shiji yu Longsha jilüe 方式濟與《龍沙紀略》", Yuexi yu tansuo 學習與探索, 1979 (10).