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Xizhao tulüe 西招圖略

Sep 10, 2019 © Ulrich Theobald

Xizhao tulüe 西招圖略, also called Zhenfu shiyi 鎮撫事宜 "Rules for pacification and administration", is a book on Tibet compiled by Sungyūn 松筠 (1754-1835), who was 1794-1799 resident minister (amban) in Tibet (zhu Zang banshi dachen 駐藏辦事大臣). It was finished in 1789 and is divided into 28 chapters providing information on many aspects of administration, reaching from the organization of the military to taxes, law, and selection of personnel. The texts also gives information on the customs and habits of the Tibetans. The book includes twelve maps, on which mountains, rivers, military garrisons, and borders are marked.

The text provides information on important matters in Tibet, like the Dalai Lamas, Panchen Lamas and the cabinet, monks, the nobility, tribes, household registers, religion, and customs, yet a major part of the text describes measures to be taken to prevent internal turmoils and foreign intrusions like the Gorkha invasions from Nepal in 1788-1792. The appendix includes a list of postal stations reaching from Chengdu 成都, Sichuan, to Central Tibet

The book was printed in 1823, 1847, and 1898 (lithography by Shanghai Press 上海書局), and reprinted in 1982 by the Xizang Renmin Press 西藏人民出版社, in a joint edition with Xizang tukao 西藏圖考. It is also part of the collection Xizhao wu zhong 西招五種.

Table 1. Contents of the Xizhao tulüe 西招圖略
安邊 Anbian Keeping quiet the borderland
撫藩 Fufan Soothing the tribes
戒怒 Jienu Impeding the angry
遏欲 Eyu Curbing the covetous
抑強 Yiqiang Repressing the strong
除苛 Chuke Eliminating the evil
厲俗 Lisu Sharpening the customs
慎刑 Shenxing Keeping to justice
綏遠 Suiyuan Pacifying the distant regions
懷柔 Huairou Pitying the weak
成才 Chengcai Accomplishing the talented
述事 Shushi Documenting matters
審隘 Shen'ai Investigating difficult spots
量敵 Liangdi Assessing the enemy
合操 Hecao Unifing for practice
行操 Xingcao Carrying out practice
練兵 Lianbing Training the troops
申律 Shenlü Extending the rules
制師 Zhishi Controlling the troops
馭眾 Yuzhong Guiding the masses
堅陣 Jianzhen Strengthening the battle order
出奇 Chuqi Displaying out heterodox modes
倡勇 Changyong Rewarding the braves
謹勝 Jinsheng Respecting the victorious
善始 Shanshi Excelling in the beginning
持志 Chizhi Maintaining one's will
防微 Fangwei Defending details
守正 Shouzheng Protecting the correct
Sources:
Cui Yanping 崔艷萍 (2009). "Zang dachen Songyun yu Xizhao tulüe kaolüe 藏大臣松筠和《西招圖略》考略", Zhong-xiaoxue tushu qingbao shijie 中小學圖書情報世界, 2009 (8).
Danzhu Angbeng 丹珠昂奔, ed. (2003). Zangzu da cidian 藏族大辭典 (Lanzhou: Gansu renmin chubanshe), 855.
Gao Mingde 高文德, ed. (1995). Zhongugo shaoshu minzu shi da cidian 中國少數民族史大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin jiaoyu chubanshe), 703.
Wang Zhaoming 王兆明, Fu Langyun 傅朗雲, ed. (1991). Zhonghua gu wenxian da cidian 中華古文獻大辭典, Vol. Dili 地理卷 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 121.
Wu Feng 吳楓, ed. (1987). Jianming Zhongguo guji cidian 簡明中國古籍辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 300.
Zhao Xinyu 趙心愚 (2013)."Xizang tushuo yu Xizhao tulüe de guanxi ji qi tedian, jiazhi 《西藏圖説》與《西招圖略》的關係及其特點、價值", Zhongguo difangzhi 中國地方志, 2013 (8).
Zhou Weizhou 周偉洲, Ding Jingtai 丁景泰, ed. (2006). Sichou zhi lu da cidian 絲綢之路大辭典 (Xi'an: Shaanxi renmin chubanshe), 792.