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Yiyulu 異域錄

Sep 20, 2019 © Ulrich Theobald

Yiyulu 異域錄 is a travel report of the early Qing period written by Tulišen 圖理琛 (1667-1740) from the Aha Gioro clan 阿額覺羅氏 and member of the Plain Yellow banner (Manzhou zhenghuang qi 滿洲正黃旗). In 1712, he was sent to a mission to the Torɣud (Chin. Tu'erhute 土爾扈特) ruler Ayuka Khan (Ch. Ayuqi 阿玉奇, r. 1669-1724). He arrived in the residence of the Khan at the Volga River after nearly two years of travel, and returned to Beijing in early 1715.

The book describes what Tulišen observed during his travel, from geographical and ethnographical aspects to flora and fauna of Mongolia, Siberia, and the Russian steppe. In most editions a map of the travel is added. The book was finished and printed in 1723. Tulišen's travel is seen the first direct contact between China and Russia, even if the border Treaty of Nerchinsk (Ch. Nibuchu tiaoyue 尼布楚條約) had been concluded before, namely in 1689.

The text is included in the series Siku quanshu 四庫全書, Zhaodai congshu 昭代叢書, Jieyueshanfang huichao 借月山房彙鈔, Zeguzhai chongchao 澤古齋重鈔, Congshu jicheng chubian 叢書集成初編 and Xiaofanghuzhai yudi congchao 小方壺齋輿地叢鈔. It was written in Manchu (title Lakcaha jecen-de takūraha babe ejehe bithe "Records from the mission to the remote borderlands") and in Chinese. It was translated into English, Russian, French, and German.

Table 1. Map of Russia from the Yiyulu 異域錄
The Great Wall right bottom, Moscow (莫斯科窪) as a square top left.
map: right top 朱兒克河 (朱爾克河) “the local products from here are black zoble 黑貂and 磎鼠(鼷鼠), to the left 土爾汗斯科 (Yenisej River, with Angara 昂噶拉河, Selengge 色楞格河), product skins of the arctic fox 白狐皮 left half: lower part Kazakhs (Dayuan), upper part Ob River 顎布河, with Irtysh 厄爾齊斯河, Tobol 托波爾河, left river system 佛克格河 (or 厄濟兒河), in the river bow the land of the Torghud, southern part called 宰河 and Tengjisi .

Table 1. Chapters and itinerary of the Yiyulu 異域錄
楚庫柏興 городъ Селенгинскъ city of Selenginsk
烏的柏興 городъ Удинскъ city of Udinsk
柏爾湖 Байкалъ Lake Baikal
厄爾庫城 городъ Иркуцкъ city of Irkutsk
昂噶拉河 рѣка Ангара River Angara
伊聶謝柏興 городъ Енисейскъ city of Yeniseysk
麻科斯科 Маковской волокъ (portage of) Makovsk
揭的河 рѣка Кеть River Ket
那里本柏興 городъ Нарымъ city of Narym
蘇爾呼忒柏興 городъ Тургутъ city of Turgut
薩瑪爾斯科 Самарскъ (city of) Samarsk
狄本演斯科 Димянскъ (city of) Dimyansk
托波爾 городъ Тобольскъ city of Tobolsk
городъ Тюмень city of Tyumen
鴉班沁 городъ Япанчинъ city of Yapanchin
費耶爾和土爾斯科城 городъ Верьхотурье city of Verkhoturye
費耶爾和土爾斯科佛落克嶺 Верхотурской волокъ portage of Verkhotursk
索里喀穆斯科 городъ Соликамской city of Solikamskoy
改郭羅多 Кай городъ Kay City
黒林諾付 городъ Хлыновъ city of Khlynov
喀山 городъ Казань city of Kazan
西穆必爾斯科 городъ Синбирскъ city of Sinbirsk
薩拉托付 городъ Саратовъ city of Saratov (meeting with Ayuka Khan)
塔喇斯科 городъ Тара city of Tara
托穆斯科 городъ Томскъ city of Tomsk
伊里木城 Илимъ городъ Ilim City
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