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Chinese History - The States of Qiuchi 仇池 (296-443/473)

Periods of Chinese History
The states of Qiuchi were five kingdoms established in the triangular border region of modern Gansu, Shaanxi and Sichuan in the proximity of Mt. Qiuchi, Gansu. The dynasties ruling over these five states between 296 and 580 were founded by members of the family Yang 楊 of the people of the Di 氐. They are not counted among the Sixteen Barbarian States 五胡十六國 (300~430) that dominated northern China during the early Southern and Northern Dynasties period 南北朝 (300~600).
The first known chieftain of the "White Neck" Di 白項氐 was Yang Teng 楊騰 who ruled over the southeastern stretch of the modern province of Gansu at the beginning of the 3rd century. His successors Yang Ju 楊駒 and Yang Qianwan 楊千萬 payed tributes to the emperors of the Cao-Wei empire 曹魏 (220-265) and were rewarded with the title of King (wang 王). Yang Feilong 楊飛龍 took residence in Lüeyang 略陽. The first of the five kingdoms, the Former Qiuchi Qianqiuchi 前仇池 (296-371) was founded in 296 by Yang Maosou 楊茂捜. He ruled over the commanderies of Yinping 陰平 and Wudu 武都 in independancy from the court of the Western Jin 西晉 (265-316). His son Yang Nandi 楊難敵 occupied the province of Liangzhou 梁州 (the region of Hanzhong 漢中 between modern Shaanxi and Sichuan), his nephew Yang Chu 楊初 expanded the territory by conquering the city of Xicheng 西城 (modern Ankang 安康, Shaanxi). In 371 the small kingdom was conquered by the Former Qin dynasty 前秦 (351-395).
The next independant kingdom in the region, Later Qiuchi Houqiuchi 後仇池 (385-443/473), was founded by Yang Ding 楊定 in 386. He occupied Tianshui 天水, Lüeyang 略陽, Longcheng 隴城 and Jicheng 冀城. He died in 394 in a battle with the armies of Western Qin 西秦 (385-431). His younger brother Yang Sheng 楊盛 succeeded him. He initially controlled the commanderies of Yinping and Wudu but then expanded the territory of his kingdom to Hanzhong and Qishan 祁山. The kingdom was conquered in 443 by the Northern Wei 北魏 (386-534).
In 447 Yang Wende 楊文德 became the ruler of the dominion of Wudu. His residence was first in Baiya 白崖 (modern Mianxian 勉縣, Shaanxi), later Xialu 葭蘆 (modern Wudu, Gansu). He was succeded by his nephew Yang Yuanhe 楊元和 and his younger brother Yang Seng 楊僧. Yang Yuanhe proclaimed himself King of Wudu but accepted the suzerainty of the Northern Wei, while Yang Seng declared himself a subject of the Liu-Song dynasty 劉宋 (420-479). The kingdom was conquered in 477 by the Northern Wei.
In the same year of 477 Yang Guangxiang 楊廣香 founded the kingdom of Yinping. After a few generations of rule, Yang Fachen 楊法琛 conquered Lizhou 黎洲 (modern Guangyuan 廣元, Sichuan) in the south. His son Yang Yongan 楊永安 supported Wang Qian, provincial governor of Yizhou 益州 (Sichuan), Wang Qian 王謙, against the powerful general Yang Jian 楊堅 of the Northern Zhou empire 北周 (557-581). Yang Jian began a military campaign against the west and conquered Yinping in 580, shortly before adopting the title of Emperor of the Sui 隋 (581-618).
The kingdom of Wuxing was ruled by Yang Wenhong 楊文弘. King Yang Shaoxian 楊紹先 was caputred by the Northern Wei but managed to escape and returned. His successor Yang Bixie 楊避邪 lost the territory in 530 to the Northern Wei.

The Rulers of Qiuchi 仇池 (296-443/473)
Capitals: Lüeyang 略陽, Baiqing 百頃, Xiabian 下辨
Ethnicity: Di 氐
dynastic title
-----reign periods
personal name
Former Qiuchi 前期仇池 (296-371)
296-317Yang Maosou 楊茂捜
317-334Yang Nandi 楊難敵
334-337Yang Yi 楊毅
337-355Yang Chu 楊初
355-356Yang Guo 楊國
356-360Yang Jun 楊俊
360-370Yang Shi 楊世
370-371 Yang Cuan 楊篡
371 Former Qiuchi conquered by Former Qin 前秦.
Later Qiuchi 後期仇池 (385-443/473)
Qiuchi Wuwang 仇池武王 385-394Yang Ding 楊定
Qiuchi Huiwenwang 仇池惠文王 394-425Yang Sheng 楊盛
Qiuchi Xiaozhaowang 仇池孝昭王 425-429Yang Xuan 楊玄
429; 443Yang Baozong 楊保宗
----- Jianyi 建義 436-
Yang Nandang 楊難當
441-443 Yang Baochi 楊保熾
442 Later Qiuchi conquered by Northern Wei 北魏.
Dominion of Wudu 武都 (447-477)
443-454Yang Wende 楊文德
455-466Yang Yuanhe 楊元和
466-473 Yang Seng 楊僧
473 Wudu conquered by Northern Wei 北魏.
Dominion of Yinping 陰平 (477-580)
477- ca. 481
Yang Guangxiang 楊廣香
Yang Fachen 楊法琛
Yang Yongan 楊永安
580 Yinping conquered by Sui 隋.
Dominion of Wuxing 武興 (478-530)
478-480Yang Wenhong 楊文弘
480-503Yang Jishi 楊集始
Yang Shaoxian 楊紹先
Yang Bixie 楊避邪
530 Wuxing conquered by Northern Wei 北魏.

Sources: Shi Long 石龍 (1994), "Yinping guo 陰平國", "Qianqiuchi 前仇池", "Houqiuchi 後仇池", "Wudu guo 武都國", "Wuxing guo 武興國", and "Yangshi Qiuchi wuguo 楊氏仇池五國", in Zhongguo sichou zhi lu cidian 中國絲綢之路辭典 (Ürümqi: Xinjiang renmin chubanshe), pp. 10-11. ● Zhongguo lishi da cidian bianzuan weiyuanhui 中國歷史大辭典編纂委員會 (ed. 2000), Zhongguo lishi da cidian 中國歷史大辭典 (Shanghai: Shanghai cishu chubanshe), Vol. 2, pp. 3320-3322.

October 30, 2011 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail

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