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Chinese History - Ming Dynasty Rulers

Periods of Chinese History
Ming Dynasty 明 (1368-1644)
Capital: Nanjing 南京 (modern Nanjing, Jiangsu), from 1403 Beijing 北京
temple name
-----reign periods
personal name, relationship to predecessor
▲ buried in... (name of tomb hill)
Ming Taizu 明太祖 (r. 1368-1398)
-----Hongwu 洪武 1368-1398

Northern Yuan dynasty (1368-1388):
Toγon Temür 妥歡帖睦爾 (r. [1333]-1370)
-----Zhizheng 至正 [1341]-1370
Āyuśrīdara 愛猷識理達臘 (r. 1371-1378)
-----Xuanguang 宣光 1371-1378
Toquz Temür 脫古思帖木兒 (r. 1378-1388)
-----Tianyuan 天元 1379-1388

Usurpers Ming Yuzhen 明玉珍, Emperor of Xia 夏 (r. 1362-1371)
-----Kaixi 開熙 1367-1371
Tian Jiucheng 田九成 (1397)
-----Longfeng 龍鳳 1397
Zhu Yuanzhang 朱元璋
▲ Ming Xiaoling 明孝陵
Ming Huidi 明惠帝 (r. 1398-1402)
-----Jianwen 建文 1399-1402
Zhu Xunwen 朱允炆, grandson of Taizu
▲ (none)
Ming Chengzu 明成祖 (r. 1402-1424)
-----Yongle 永樂 1403-1424
Zhu Di 朱棣, son of Taizu
▲ Ming Changling 明長陵
Ming Renzong 明仁宗 (r. 1424-1425)
-----Hongxi 洪熙 1425
Zhu Gaochi 朱高熾, son of Chengzu
▲ Ming Xianling 明獻陵
Ming Xuanzong 明宣宗 (r. 1425-1435)
-----Xuande 宣德 1426-1435
Zhu Zhanji 朱瞻基, son of Renzong
▲ Ming Jingling 明景陵
Ming Yingzong 明英宗 (r. 1435-1449)
-----Zhengtong 正統 1436-1449

Usurper: Huang Xiaoyang 黃蕭養 (1449)
-----Dongyang 東陽 1449
Zhu Qizhen 朱祁鎮, son of Xuanzong
▲ Ming Yuling 明裕陵
Ming Daizong 明代宗 (r. 1449-1456)
-----Jingtai 景泰 1450-1456
Zhu Qiyu 朱祁鈺, brother of Yingzong
▲ Ming Jingtailing 明景泰陵
Ming Yingzong (again, r. 1457-1464)
-----Tianshun 天順 1457-1464

Usurpers Wang Bin 王斌 (1457)
-----Tianxiu 天繡 1457
Li Tianbao 李添保 (1460)
-----Wulie 武烈 1460
Ming Xianzong 明憲宗 (r. 1464-1487)
-----Chenghua 成化 1465-1487

Usurper Liu Tong 劉通 (1465-1466)
-----Desheng 德勝 1465-1466
Zhu Jianshen 朱見深, son of Yingzong
▲ Ming Maoling 明茂陵
Ming Xiaozong 明孝宗 (r. 1487-1505)
-----Hongzhi 弘治 1488-1505
Zhu Youcheng 朱祐樘, son of Xianzong
▲ Ming Tailing 明泰陵
Ming Wuzong 明武宗 (r. 1505-1521)
-----Zhengde 正德 1506-1521

Usurper Zhu Chenhao 朱宸濠 (1519)
-----Shunde 順德 1519
Zhu Houzhao 朱厚照, son of Xiaozong
▲ Ming Kangling 明康陵
Ming Shizong 明世宗 (r. 1521-1566)
-----Jiajing 嘉靖 1522-1566

Usurpers Zhang Lian 張璉 (1560-1562)
-----Zaoli 造曆 1560-1562
Cai Boguan 蔡伯貫 (1565-1566)
-----Dabao 大寶 1565-1566
Zhu Houcong 朱厚熜, grandson of Xianzong
▲ Ming Yongling 明永陵
Ming Muzong 明穆宗 (r. 1566-1572)
-----Longqing 隆慶 1567-1572
Zhu Zaihou 朱載垕, son of Shizong
▲ Ming Zhaoling 明昭陵
Ming Shenzong 明神宗 (r. 1572-1619)
-----Wanli 萬曆 1573-1619
Zhu Yijun 朱翊鈞, son of Muzong
▲ Ming Dingling 明定陵
Ming Guangzong 明光宗 (r. 1620)
-----Taichang 泰昌 1620
Zhu Changluo 朱常洛, son of Shenzong
▲ Ming Qingling 明慶陵
Ming Xizong 明熹宗 (r. 1620-1627)
-----Tianqi 天啟 1621-1627

Usurper Xu Hongru 徐鴻儒 (1622)
-----Dacheng xingsheng 大成興盛 (大乘興勝) 1622
Zhu Youjiao (Zhu Youxiao) 朱由校, son of Guangzong
▲ Ming Deling 明德陵
Ming Sizong 明思宗 (r. 1627-1644)
-----Chongzhen 崇禎 1628-1644

Later Jin dynasty 後金 (1616-1636):
Aisin Gioro Nurhaci 愛新覺羅努邇哈赤 (r. 1616-1626)
-----Tianming 天命 1616-1626
Aisin Gioro Hong Taiji (Abahai, Huang Taiji) 愛新覺羅皇太極 (r. 1626-1643)
-----Tiancong 天聰 1627-1635
Dynasty renamed Qing 清 1636
-----Chongde 崇德 1636-1643

Usurpers Li Zicheng 李自成, Emperor of Dashun 大順 (r. 1644-1645)
-----Yongchang 永昌 1644-1645
Zhang Xianzhong 張獻忠, Emperor of Daxi 大西 (r. 1644-1646)
-----Dashun 大順 1644-1646
Zhu Youjian 朱由檢, brother of Xizong
▲ Ming Siling 明思陵
Southern Ming (Nanming) 南明 1644-1661
Ming Anzong 明安宗, the Prince of Fu 南明福王 (r. 1644-1645)
-----Hongguang 弘光 1645
Zhu Yousong 朱由崧
Ming Shaozong 明紹宗, the Prince of Tang 南明唐王 (r. 1645-1646)
-----Longwu 隆武 1645-1646
Zhu Yujian 朱聿鍵
Ming Wenzong 明文宗, the Prince of Tang (2) 南明唐王 (r. 1646)
-----Shaowu 紹武 1646
Zhu Yuyue 朱聿𨮁
Ming Yizong 明義宗, the Prince of Lu 南明魯王 (r. 1646) Zhu Yihai 朱以海
Ming Zhaozong 明昭宗, the Prince of Gui 南明桂王 (r. 1646-1661)
-----Yongli 永曆 1647-1661
Zhu Youlang 朱由榔
The Prince of Han 南明韓王 (r. 1646-1663)
-----Dingwu 定武 1647-1663
Zhu Benli 朱本鉝
Ming Jingzong 明敬宗, the Prince of Huai 南明淮王 (r. 1648-1649)
-----Dongwu 東武 1648-1649
Zhu Changqing 朱常清

Source:
Zhonguo lishi da cidian bianzuan weiyuanhui 中國歷史大辭典編纂委員會 (ed. 2000), Zhongguo lishi da cidian 中國歷史大辭典, Shanghai: Shanghai cishu chubanshe, vol.2, pp. 3352-3355.


2000ff. © Ulrich Theobald · Mail

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