ChinaKnowledge.de -
An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art

Ming Dynasty Emperors

Mar 19, 2016 © Ulrich Theobald
Ming Dynasty 明 (1368-1644)
Capital: Nanjing 南京 (today in Jiangsu), from 1403 on Beijing 北京, Nanjing being secondary capital
temple name (miaohao 廟號) personal name, relationship to predecessor
▲ name of tomb hill
reign-period (nianhao 年號)
Ming Taizu 明太祖 (r. 1368-1398) Zhu Yuanzhang 朱元璋
▲ Ming Xiaoling 明孝陵
Hongwu 洪武 (1368-1398)
Northern Yuan dynasty (1368-1388):
Toγon Temür 妥歡帖睦爾 (r. [1333]-1370)
-----Zhizheng 至正 [1341]-1370
Āyuśrīdara 愛猷識理達臘 (r. 1371-1378)
-----Xuanguang 宣光 1371-1378
Toquz Temür 脫古思帖木兒 (r. 1378-1388)
-----Tianyuan 天元 1379-1388
Usurpers Ming Yuzhen 明玉珍, Emperor of Xia 夏 (r. 1362-1371)
-----Kaixi 開熙 1367-1371
Tian Jiucheng 田九成 (1397)
-----Longfeng 龍鳳 1397
Ming Huidi 明惠帝 (r. 1398-1402) Zhu Xunwen 朱允炆, grandson of Taizu
▲ (none)
Jianwen 建文 (1399-1402)
Ming Chengzu 明成祖 (r. 1402-1424) Zhu Di 朱棣, son of Taizu
▲ Ming Changling 明長陵
Yongle 永樂 (1403-1424)
Ming Renzong 明仁宗 (r. 1424-1425) Zhu Gaochi 朱高熾, son of Chengzu
▲ Ming Xianling 明獻陵
Hongxi 洪熙 (1425)
Ming Xuanzong 明宣宗 (r. 1425-1435) Zhu Zhanji 朱瞻基, son of Renzong
▲ Ming Jingling 明景陵
Xuande 宣德 (1426-1435)
Ming Yingzong 明英宗 (r. 1435-1449) Zhu Qizhen 朱祁鎮, son of Xuanzong
▲ Ming Yuling 明裕陵
Zhengtong 正統 (1436-1449)
Usurper: Huang Xiaoyang 黃蕭養 (1449)
-----Dongyang 東陽 1449
Ming Daizong 明代宗 (r. 1449-1456) Zhu Qiyu 朱祁鈺, brother of Yingzong
▲ Ming Jingtailing 明景泰陵
Jingtai 景泰 (1450-1456)
Ming Yingzong (again, r. 1457-1464) Tianshun 天順 (1457-1464)
Usurpers Wang Bin 王斌 (1457)
-----Tianxiu 天繡 1457
Li Tianbao 李添保 (1460)
-----Wulie 武烈 1460
Ming Xianzong 明憲宗 (r. 1464-1487) Zhu Jianshen 朱見深, son of Yingzong
▲ Ming Maoling 明茂陵
Chenghua 成化 (1465-1487)
Usurper Liu Tong 劉通 (1465-1466)
-----Desheng 德勝 1465-1466
Ming Xiaozong 明孝宗 (r. 1487-1505) Zhu Youcheng 朱祐樘, son of Xianzong
▲ Ming Tailing 明泰陵
Hongzhi 弘治 (1488-1505)
Ming Wuzong 明武宗 (r. 1505-1521) Zhu Houzhao 朱厚照, son of Xiaozong
▲ Ming Kangling 明康陵
Zhengde 正德 (1506-1521)
Usurper Zhu Chenhao 朱宸濠 (1519)
-----Shunde 順德 1519
Ming Shizong 明世宗 (r. 1521-1566) Zhu Houcong 朱厚熜, grandson of Xianzong
▲ Ming Yongling 明永陵
Jiajing 嘉靖 (1522-1566)
Usurpers Zhang Lian 張璉 (1560-1562)
-----Zaoli 造曆 1560-1562
Cai Boguan 蔡伯貫 (1565-1566)
-----Dabao 大寶 1565-1566
Ming Muzong 明穆宗 (r. 1566-1572) Zhu Zaihou 朱載垕, son of Shizong
▲ Ming Zhaoling 明昭陵
Longqing 隆慶 (1567-1572)
Ming Shenzong 明神宗 (r. 1572-1619) Zhu Yijun 朱翊鈞, son of Muzong
▲ Ming Dingling 明定陵
Wanli 萬曆 (1573-1619)
Ming Guangzong 明光宗 (r. 1620) Zhu Changluo 朱常洛, son of Shenzong
▲ Ming Qingling 明慶陵
Taichang 泰昌 (1620)
Ming Xizong 明熹宗 (r. 1620-1627) Zhu Youjiao (Zhu Youxiao) 朱由校, son of Guangzong
▲ Ming Deling 明德陵
Tianqi 天啟 (1621-1627)
Usurper Xu Hongru 徐鴻儒 (1622)
-----Dacheng xingsheng 大成興盛 (大乘興勝) 1622
Ming Sizong 明思宗 (r. 1627-1644) Zhu Youjian 朱由檢, brother of Xizong
▲ Ming Siling 明思陵
Chongzhen 崇禎 (1628-1644)
Later Jin dynasty 後金 (1616-1636):
Aisin Gioro Nurhaci 愛新覺羅努邇哈赤 (r. 1616-1626)
-----Tianming 天命 1616-1626
Aisin Gioro Hong Taiji (Abahai, Huang Taiji) 愛新覺羅皇太極 (r. 1626-1643)
-----Tiancong 天聰 1627-1635
Dynasty renamed Qing 清 1636
-----Chongde 崇德 1636-1643
Usurpers Li Zicheng 李自成, Emperor of Dashun 大順 (r. 1644-1645)
-----Yongchang 永昌 1644-1645
Zhang Xianzhong 張獻忠, Emperor of Daxi 大西 (r. 1644-1646)
-----Dashun 大順 1644-1646
Southern Ming (Nanming) 南明 1644-1661
Ming Anzong 明安宗, the Prince of Fu 南明福王 (r. 1644-1645) Zhu Yousong 朱由崧 Hongguang 弘光 (1645)
Ming Shaozong 明紹宗, the Prince of Tang 南明唐王 (r. 1645-1646) Zhu Yujian 朱聿鍵 Longwu 隆武 (1645-1646)
Ming Wenzong 明文宗, the Prince of Tang (2) 南明唐王 (r. 1646) Zhu Yuyue 朱聿𨮁 Shaowu 紹武 (1646)
Ming Yizong 明義宗, the Prince of Lu 南明魯王 (r. 1646) Zhu Yihai 朱以海
Ming Zhaozong 明昭宗, the Prince of Gui 南明桂王 (r. 1646-1661) Zhu Youlang 朱由榔 Yongli 永曆 (1647-1661)
The Prince of Han 南明韓王 (r. 1646-1663) Zhu Benli 朱本鉝 Dingwu 定武 (1647-1663)
Ming Jingzong 明敬宗, the Prince of Huai 南明淮王 (r. 1648-1649) Zhu Changqing 朱常清 Dongwu 東武 (1648-1649)
Source:
Zhonguo lishi da cidian bianzuan weiyuanhui 中國歷史大辭典編纂委員會, ed. (2000). Zhongguo lishi da cidian 中國歷史大辭典 (Shanghai: Shanghai cishu chubanshe), Vol. 2, 3352-3355.