Qi Taigong 齊太公, personal name Jiang Shang 姜尚, courtesy name Ziya 子牙, also known as Lü Shang 呂尚 or Lü Wang 呂望, was the founder of the first dynasty of the state of Qi 齊 during the Zhou period 周 (11th cent.-221 BCE). The name surname of Lü is derived from his first territory, the state of Lü.
As the story goes, Jiang Shang was already quite old and lived a reclusive life as a fisherman at the banks of River Wei 渭水. He encountered Ji Chang 姬昌, the Viscount of the West 西伯, when the latter was out on a hunt. Ji Chang was very pleased to meet Jiang Shang because he was "longing for" (wang 望) talented worthies to support him against the cruel tyrant King Zhou of Shang 商 (17th-11th cent. BCE). He therefore bestowed Jiang Shang the name of Taigong Wang 太公望.
Jiang Shang was appointed highest commander of Ji Chang's armies, and he also served this son Ji Fa 姬發, the eventual King Wu of Zhou 周武王, who adressed him as Shi Shang Fu 師尚父 "Father Shang of the Army".
After the conquest of the Shang kingdom, Jiang Shang was made regional ruler (zhuhou 諸侯) of the territory of Qi in the east, with the task to control the eastern region. He is credited with a benevolent and farsighted government in Qi, and is therefore also venerated by the Confucians.
The military treatise Liutao 六韜 is traditionally attributed to him.
Cang Xiuliang 倉修良, ed. (1991). Shiji cidian 史記辭典 (Jinan: Shandong jiaoyu chubanshe), 172.
Huang Banghe 黃邦和, Pi Mingxiu 皮明庥, ed. (1987). Zhong-wai lishi renwu cidian 中外歷史人物詞典 (Changsha: Hunan renmin chubanshe), 104.
Li Zhengfu 李正夫 (1993). "Jiang Shang 姜尚", in Shi Quanchang 石泉長, ed. Zhonghua baike yaolan 中華百科要覽 (Shenyang: Liaoning renmin chubanshe), 285.
Liu Qing 劉慶 (1996). "Qi Taigong 齊太公", in Feng Kezheng馮克正, Fu Qingsheng 傅慶升, ed. Zhuzi baijia da cidian 諸子百家大辭典 (Shenyang: Liaoning renmin chubanshe), 3.
Wuhan Daxue Lishi Xi Jianming lishi cidian bianxiezu 武漢大學歷史系《簡明歷史辭典》編寫組, ed. (1983). Jianming lishi cidian 簡明歷史辭典 (Zhengzhou: Henan renmin chubanshe), 6.
Xiong Tiejin 熊鐵基, Yang Youli 楊有禮, ed. (1994). Zhongguo diwang zaixiang cidian 中國帝王宰相辭典 (Wuhan: Hubei jiaoyu chubanshe), 43, 369.
Yi Xingguo 衣興國, ed. (1988). Shiyong Zhongguo mingren cidian 實用中國名人辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 24.
Yang Qingwang 楊慶旺, Hua Hua 哈鏵, ed. (1987). Zhongguo junshi zhishi cidian 中國軍事知識辭典 (Beijing: Huaxia chubanshe), 259.
Zhang Lirong 張麗榮 (1998). "Lü Wang 呂望", in Zhongguo da baike quanshu 國大百科全書, Junshi 軍事 (Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), Vol. 1, 725.
Zhang Huizhi 張撝之, Shen Qiwei 沈起煒, Liu Dezhong 劉德重, ed. (1999). Zhongguo lidai mingren cidian 中國歷代人名大辭典 (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe), Vol. 1, 525.
Zhang Ke 張克, Huang Kangbo 黃康白, Huang Fangdong 黃方東, ed. (1991). Shiji renming cidian 史記人物辭典 (Nanning: Guangxi renmin chubanshe), 25.
Zhao Henglie 趙恒烈, Xu Xiqi 徐錫祺, ed. (1987). Jianming Zhong-wai lishi cidian 簡明中外歷史辭典 (Xi'an: Shaanxi renmin jiaoyu chubanshe), 12.