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Xi Chengzi 郤成子 Xi Que 郤缺

Nov 2, 2012 © Ulrich Theobald

Xi Que 郤缺 (d. 597 BCE), posthumous title Xi Chengzi 郤成子, was a nobleman in the state of Jin 晉 during the Spring and Autumn period 春秋 (770-5th cent. BCE), and a member of the house of Xi 郤.

Because the name of his territory was Ji 冀 (near modern Jishan 稷山, Shanxi), he is also known as Ji Que 冀缺. He was a son of Xi Rui 郤芮 and served the dukes Cheng 晉成公 (r. 607-600) and Jing 晉景公 (r. 600-581) of Jin.

His father was executed in 636 because he had rebelled against Duke Wen 晉文公 (r. 636-628), and Xi Que was demoted to commoner (shuren 庶人). Hu Yan 狐偃 felt pity with him and recommended him to the Duke who appointed him grand master in the Lower Army (xiajun dafu 下軍大夫).

In 627, he carriedo out a military campaign against the White Di 白狄 tribes and captured their chieftain. He was rewarded with the title of minister commander (qing 卿) and was given back the territory of his family.

In 615, Xi Que defeated the army of Qin 秦 in the battle of Hequ 河曲 (near modern Yongji 永濟, Shanxi), in 612 he brought down the army of Cai 蔡. He was therefore appointed Counsellor-in-Chief, as successor to Zhao Dun 趙盾 (Zhao Xuanzi 趙宣子).

In 600, King Zhuang 楚莊王 (r. 614-591) of Chu 楚 attacked the state of Zheng 鄭. Xi Que brought relief to Zheng and defeated the army of Chu.

The chieftain of the Red Di 赤狄 had enslaved several other tribes of the Di (zhong Di 眾狄). Xi Que forced the Di tribes into submission and formally created an alliance (meng 盟) with them at Zanhan 欑函.

Cang Xiuliang 倉修良, ed. (1991). Shiji cidian 史記辭典 (Jinan: Shandong jiaoyu chubanshe), 424.
Xiong Tieji 熊鐵基, Yang Youli 楊有禮, ed. (1994). Zhongguo diwang zaixiang cidian 中國帝王宰相辭典 (Wuhan: Hubei jiaoyu chubanshe), 400.
Zhang Huizhi 張撝之, Shen Qiwei 沈起煒, Liu Dezhong 劉德重, ed. (1999). Zhonggu lidai renming da cidian 中國歷代人名大辭典 (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe), Vol. 2, 1756.
Zhang Ke 張克, Huang Kangbo 黃康白, Huang Fangdong 黃方東, ed. (1991). Shiji renwu cidian 史記人物辭典 (Nanning: Guangxi renmin chubanshe), 83.