An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art

The House of Yangshe 羊舌

Nov 8, 2012 © Ulrich Theobald

The house of Yangshe 羊舌 was a noble family in the state of Jin 晉 during the Spring and Autumn period 春秋 (770-5th cent. BCE). They were descendants of Marquis Jing of Jin 晉靖侯 (r. 859-841) and therefore bore the family name Ji 姬. Yangshe was actually the name of their territory located in the southern parts of the modern province of Shanxi but was also used as a kinsname (shi 氏). There were four branches of the family Yangshe, all of which were influential noblemen in Jin. The family possessed three territories, namely the towns of Tongdi 銅鞮 (near modern Qinxian 沁縣, Shanxi), Yangshi 楊氏 (near modern Hongdong 洪洞, Shanxi), and Pingyang 平陽 (near modern Linfen 臨汾, Shanxi).

Duke Wu of Jin 晉武公 (r. 717-677) had a son called Bo Qiao 伯僑, who was made grand master (dafu 大夫) of the land of Yangshe. His great-grandson was Yangshe Zhi 羊舌職 who had five sons: Yangshe Chi 羊舌赤, grand master (dafu 大夫) of Tongti; Yangshe Xi 羊舌肸, grand master of Yangshi 楊氏; Yangshe Fu 羊舌鮒; Yangshe Hu 羊舌虎; and the youngest son Yangshe Jisu 羊舌季夙. Yangshe Xi had a son called Yangshe Bo Shi 羊舌伯石, courtesy name Shiwo 食我, also called Yangshi 揚石. He sided with Qi Ying 祁盈, who was unluckily involved in a rebellion against the duke of Jin.

The houses of Qi 祁 and Yangshe were therefore extinguished, barring a few members of the family who hid to the wilderness of Mt. Huashan 華山 and later settled down in Huayin 華陰. Their descendants adopted the family names Yang 羊 and Yang 揚 (or 楊).

Table 1. Genealogy of the house of Yangshe 羊舌
Duke Wu of Jin 晉武公 (r. 717-677)
Bo Qiao 伯僑
Gongsun Wen 公孫文
Yangshe Tu 羊舌突 (Grand Master Yangshe 羊舌大夫)
Yangshe Zhi 羊舌職
Yangshe Chi 羊舌赤 (Tongdi Bo Hua 銅鞮伯華, Bo Hua 伯華) Yangshe Xi 羊舌肸 (Shu Xiang 叔向, Shu Xi 叔肸, Yang Xi 楊肸) Yangshe Hu 羊舌虎 (Shu Hu 叔虎, Ji Su 季夙, Shu Biao 叔羆) Yangshe Fu 羊舌鮒 (Shu Fu 叔鮒, Shu Yu 叔魚)
Zirong 子容 Ziwo 子我 Bo Shi (伯石, Yang Shiwo 楊食我, Yang Shi 楊石)
Sources: Chunqiu shizu pu, juan 1, fol. 24a-24b. Chunqiu shizu jilüe, juan 1, fol. 36b-37a.
Chen Houyao 陳厚耀 (1800). Chunqiu shizu pu 春秋世族譜 (Lianghu Shuyuan Zhengxuetang edition 兩湖書院正學堂本, 1899).
Chen Mingyuan 陳明遠, Wang Zonghu 汪宗虎, ed. (1995). Zhongguo xingshi cidian 中國姓氏辭典 (Beijing: Beijing chubanshe), 496.
Wang Wenyuan 王文源 (1845). Chunqiu shizu jilüe 春秋世族輯略 (Xuxiu siku quanshu 續修四庫全書. 124).