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Huang-Ming baoxun 皇明寶訓

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There are two different books called Huang-Ming baoxun 皇明寶訓 "Precious instructions of the August Ming", one dating back to the Hongwu reign 洪武 (1368-1396) when Zhu Yuanzhang 朱元璋, founder of the Ming dynasty 明 (1368-1644), had issued his imperial instructions in 5 juan "scrolls". The "Instructions" are modeled on the Tang period 唐 (618-907) book Zhenguan zhengyao 貞觀政要, a book that presents models for institutional regulations. The first chapter of the Huang-Ming baoxun contains general regulations for the emperor and his conduct of government, from observing Heaven's will to the duty to exert a benevolent and exemplarious government. The second chapter points out details in daily government with the duty to observe rituals, to honour meritorious officials and to rely on a household policy of austerity. The third chapter presents details about how to interact with the ministers and state officials from the side of the officials, the fourth chapter from the viewpoint of the emperor. The fifth chapter finally deals with the interrelations between the court and the military and with the "barbarians". The book was published under the editorship of Zhan Tong 詹同 and Song Lian 宋濂.
A second book with the title of Huang-Ming baoxun was issued during the Wanli reign 萬曆 (1573-1619). It was compiled by Lü Ben 呂本 and Chen Zhiben 陳治本 and contains an enlarged version of the earlier Hongwu instructions. The new title was Taizu Gaohuangdi baoxun 太祖高皇帝寶訓 in 15 juan. There is also an extension containing the instructions of the successive emperors in 6 more juan. The Wanli version is 40 juan long and contains the governmental instructions of 10 Ming emperors.

洪武本 Hongwu version
1. 敬天 Jingtian
2. 孝思 Xiaosi
3. 勤民 Qinmin
4. 仁惻 Rence
5. 恩澤 Enze
6. 卻貢獻 Que gongxian
7. 勵忠節 Li zhongjie
8. 敬鬼神 Jing guishen
9. 斥異端 Chi yiduan
10. 練兵 Lianbing
11. 育人 Yuren
12. 教太子諸王 Jiao taizi zhuwang
13. 正家道 Zheng jiadao
14. 保全功臣 Baoquan gongchen
15. 禮臣下 Li chenxia
16. 謙德 Qiande
17. 警戒 Jingjie
18. 務實 Wushi
19. 節儉 Jiejian
20. 戒奢侈 Jie shechi
21. 議禮 Yili
22. 定律 Dinglü
23. 守法 Shoufa
24. 釁刑 Xinxing
25. 評古 Pinggu
26. 禮前代 Li qiandai
27. 求賢 Qiuxian
28. 任官 Renguan
29. 尊儒術 Zun rushu
30. 定都 Dingdu
31. 論治道 Lun zhidao
32. 求諫 Qiujian
33. 納諫 Najian
34. 謀略 Moulüe
35. 祥異 Xiangyi
36. 諭群臣 Yu qunchen
37. 諭將士 Yu jiangshi
38. 招諭 Zhaoyu
39. 懷遠人 Huai yuanren
40. 制蠻夷 Zhi manyi

Source: Liao Xinyi 廖心一 (1992), "Huang-Ming baoxun 皇明寶訓", in Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Zhongguo lishi 中國歷史 (Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), Vol. 1, p. 400.

July 11, 2010 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail
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