An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History and Literature

Qingshi jishi benmo 淸史紀事本末

Apr 11, 2018 © Ulrich Theobald

Qingshi jishi benmo 淸史紀事本末 "Topically arranged history of the Qing dynasty" is a narrative history book about the Qing dynasty 清 (1644-1911) written by the Republican historian Huang Hongshou 黃鴻壽 xxx. The 80-juan long book is written in the style of jishi benmo 紀事本末-type histories and follows the example of the Zuozhuan jishi benmo 左傳紀事本末 which is a re-writing of an already existing chronicle, the Zuozhuan 左傳.

The book is relatively short (400,000 characters) regarding the many historical events it narrates. It drew from only a few sources, like the official chronicle Donghualu 東華錄. Huang's argument to do so was that earlier history books of the type had used private sources which were not always reliable. In contrast to such a practice, the official chronicle Donghualu provided officially accepted material on history.

Huang critically revised ancient views on history, like the mythological origin of the Manchus from three celestial fairies, or the illegality of the three Southern Ming 南明 (1644-1661) emperors. He also stressed the importance of diplomatic relations (with tribute states in East and Southeast Asia, and European countries), administrative history, and philosophical discourses, and thus went beyond the pure narration of historical events. He also asserted that rebellions among the people were caused by errors in policy (baodong duo you zhengzhi wei liang 暴動多由政治之未良), and not just disobedience.

Following the paradigms of the books Zuoshi jishi benmo, Huang added a summary at the end of each chapter.

Quotation 1. Huang Hongshou's 黃鴻壽 commentary on ch. 71 Gaiding Zang-Ying tiaoyue 改訂藏印條約
編者曰:當光緒十八年,英國有名之探險家笛羅女史自兩藏歸,語人曰:「中國之對藏番,純用歐人待殖民地之法。」時人皆韙其言。是則乾隆朝所定原約之功效也。自後人奉行不力,任藏人與外國交涉,遂有英人干預之患。 The compiler says: In 1892, the British explorer "Diluonüshi" returned from Tibet, and explained: "What China does with respect to the Tibetans, is just using Europeans to exert colonial rule." At that time, many people supported this statement. Yet it is the outcome of neglecting the original treaty with Tibet formerly concluded under the Qianlong Emperor. The Tibetan government ignored the treaty and initiated diplomatic relations with foreign countries (actually a prerogative of the Qing state), and thus invited the disaster of the British interference into Tibetan policy.
而《英藏之約》以成,及在北京更定所設《中英續訂印藏條約》舉前約而一一承認之,於是西藏地方遂至受英人干涉,竟不能與無條約之內地同等,遇有戰事,且阻我進兵矣。然則西藏不仍爲中英公同保護國耶,嗚呼西藏,嗚呼西藏主國! With the Convention of Calcutta [from 1893], . From then on, the British step by step encroached on the territory of Tibet, as if no treaty was existing. When finally war erupted, the British blocked our (Chinese) troops. Tibet was thereupon not any more a common protectorate of China and Great Britain. Alas, Tibet! Alas, the xxx of Tibet!

Nan Bingwen 南炳文 (b. 1942) and Bai Xinliang 白新良 compiled a book with the same title, arranged in ten long chapters corresponding to the reign-periods, but much longer (c. 3 million characters). It was published by the Shanghai University Press (Shanghai daxue chubanshe 上海大學出版社) in 2006.

Table 1. Contents of the Qingshi jishi benmo 淸史紀事本末
1. 滿州初起 The rise of the Manchus
2. 遼藩建國 The foundation of the state in Liaodong
3. 明季戰爭 Wars during the Ming period
4. 燕京陷賊 Beijing is captures by the rebels
5. 順治入關 The Manchus enter the Shanhai Pass
6. 削平流冦 The extirpation of the bandits
7. 多爾袞攝政及諸王內訌 The reign of Dorgon and the internal strife of the princes
8. 明南渡三帝及監國魯王 The three Southern Ming emperors and the imperial regent Prince of Lu
9. 明朱成功之事蹟 The story of Zhu Chenggong (Coxinga)
10. 明起義軍之失敗 The failure of the Ming rebellion
11. 開國法制、兵制及官制 The administration of the early Qing empire
12. 康熙勤政 The Kangxi Emperor takes over
13. 三藩起事及孫延齡 The rebellion of the Three Feudatories and Sun Yanling
14. 準噶爾及西藏之兵事 The war against the Dzunghars and in Tibet
15. 歐人通商、布教及和議之開始附尼布楚條約 Peaceful relations with European merchants and missionaries (app. Treaty of Nerchinsk)
16. 臺灣朱一貴之亂 The turmoil of Zhu Yigui in Taiwan
17. 治河之政策 River conservancy
18. 立儲之反覆 The changing secret appointments of a successor
19. 官制之改革 Changes in administration
20. 文字之獄 The literary 'inquisition'
21. 鴻博經學諸特科 The examinations for literati and scholars
22. 諸儒出處學問之概 Philosophical and intellectual discourses
23. 雍正英察 The boom of the Yongzheng reign-period
24. 兄弟猜忌及大臣逐戮 Strife among brothers and murder among ministers
25. 嚴禁朋黨 The prohibition of court factions
26. 青海及準部之用兵 The wars in Qinghai and against the Dzunghars
27. 俄訂尼布楚條約及增訂市約 The revision of the border trade with Russia
28. 乾隆極盛 The apogée under the Qianlong Emperor
29. 增加兵額 Increasing the number of troops
30. 苗族及金川之徵勦 The suppression of the Miao tribes and of Jinchuan
31. 準部及回部之平定 The pacification of the Dzunghars and the Muslims in Xinjiang
32. 西南諸國之賓服緬甸、暹羅、安南、廓爾喀 The tribute states of Myanmar, Siam, Annam, and the Gorkhas (Nepal)
33. 臺灣林爽文之亂 The turmoil of Lin Shuangwen in Taiwan
34. 和珅之貪橫 The corruption of Hešen
35. 巡遊之無度 Excess in inspection tours
36. 內禪之真相 The truth behind the Qianlong Emperor's retirement
37. 嘉慶中衰 The decline during the Jiaqing reign-period
38. 各省之叛亂 Turmoils in all provinces
39. 中英交涉之變態 The changing conditions in Sino-Ango relationship
40. 道光世局 The age of the Daoguang Emperor
41. 回部張格爾之役 The war against the Muslim Jahāngīr
42. 平傜之役 War against the Yao tribes
43. 開礦之弛禁 Relaxation of the ban on ore digging
44. 鴉片之戰爭及和約 The (First) Opium War and the peace Treaty of Nanjing
45. 咸豐時政 The rule of the Xianfeng Emperor
46. 英法聯軍入京之和約 The joint Anglo-French army occupies Beijing, and the peace Convention of Beijing
47. 俄訂愛琿、天津、北京諸條約 The treaties with Russia concluded in Aigun, Tianjin, and Beijing
48. 湘軍陸師之編制 The creation of the Hunan Army
49. 湘軍水師之編制 The creation of the Hunan Navy
50. 同治中興 The Tongzhi restauration
51. 太平天國之興亡 Rise and Fall of the Kingdom of Heavenly Peace
52. 捻事之起滅 The Nian Rebellion and its suppression
53. 日本訂約 The Treaty xxx with Japan
54. 天津教案 The missionary case of Tianjin
55. 平靖滇回 The suppression of the Muslim rebellion in Yunnan
56. 光緒入繼 The succession of the Guangxu Emperor
57. 平定新疆及收回伊犁條約 The pacification of Xinjiang and the Treaty of Ili
58. 通使及選派留學 Diplomatic relations and sending students abroad
59. 英訂煙臺條約及續約 The Treaties of Yantai with Great Britain (Convention of Cheefoo)
60. 法越兵事及和約 The war with French Indochina and the concluding treaty
61. 藩屬之喪失 The loss of territory
62. 創設海軍及改練陸軍 The creation of a navy and reforms in the army
63. 興辦鐵路 The flourishing of railroads
64. 甲午戰爭及和約 The First Sino-Japanese War and the Treaty of Shimonoseki
65. 疆域之喪失及軍港租借條約 The loss of territory and the Leasing Treaty of Hong Kong
66. 戊戌政變 The reform of 1898
67. 拳匪之亂及庚子和約 The turmoil of the Boxers and the Boxer Protocol of 1900
68. 自立軍之失敗 The failure of an own army
69. 復詔變法 xxx
70. 日俄之戰 The Russo-Japanese War in 1905
71. 改訂藏印條約 The Convention of Calcutta between Anglo-India and Tibet
72. 光復軍之頓挫 xxx
73. 預備立憲之宣示 The proclamation announcing a constitution
74. 諭禁鴉片之嚴厲 Lifting the ban on opium
75. 宣統嗣立 The succession of the Xuantong Emperor
76. 親貴用事
77. 假飾立憲及組織貴族內閣 The fake constitution and the aristocratic cabinet
78. 開設資政院 The creation of the Advisory Council
79. 鐵路國有政策 The nationalisation of railroads
80. 民軍起事及下詔辭位 The uprising of the people's armies and the abdication of the emperor