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Menggu youmu ji 蒙古游牧記

Sep 19, 2019 © Ulrich Theobald

Menggu youmu ji 蒙古游牧記 is an ethnographical book on the Mongols compiled by the late Qing-period 清 (1644-1911) scholars Zhang Mu 張穆 (1805-1849), and He Qiutao 何秋濤 (1824-1862).

Zhang Mu 張穆, courtesy name Songfeng 誦風, style Shizhou 石州, hailed from Pingding 平定, Shanxi, and obtained his gongsheng degree 貢生 in 1832, but decided not to take part in higher competitions. He Qiutao 何秋濤, courtesy name Yuanchuan 愿船, hailed from Guangze 光澤, Fujian, and is the author of Shuofang beisheng 朔方備乘, a book on Mongolia and Russia.

Zhang was actually the initiator of the book, but he died before it was finished. He, who was befriended to Zhang, decided to complete the text, and added missing parts. Yet it took him ten years before the 16-juan strong text was finished. It was printed in 1867.

The first six fascicles of the book decribes the tribes in Inner Mongolia (today an Autonomous Region in the PR China), the last ten that of Outer Mongolia (Wai Menggu 外蒙古, present-day Mongolia) and the Dzunghars (Ölöd, Oyirad, Elute 額魯特). The last four juan were compiled by He Qiutao.

The text is arranged according to the administrative banners (qi 旗, Mong. qosiɣu) and leagues (meng 盟, Mong. ayimaɣ). Each chapter begins with geography and history, before going on to customs and habits. The structure of the book is thus very consistent, and it provides very reliable information on all matters in the Mongol land. The author derived much information from older sources, like the administrative canon Qing huidian 清會典, the imperial geography Da-Qing yitong zhi 大清一統志 or the military annals Pingding Zhunga'er fanglüe 平定準噶爾方略. The text does not only refer to contemporary affairs, but also gives information on the historical development of the Mongolian tribes, and is therefore a valuable supplement to the official dynastic histories.

The text was in 1891 printed in the series Xiaofanghuzhai yudi congchao 小方壺齋輿地叢鈔, and is also part of the series Huangchao fanshu yudi congshu 皇朝藩屬輿地叢書 (1903).

Table 1. Contents of the Menggu youmu ji 蒙古游牧記
1 Inner Mongolia, abodes of the J̌irem Ayimaɣ 內蒙古哲里木盟游牧所在: Qorčin 科爾沁, Jalaid 札賚特, Dörbed 杜爾伯特, Gorlos 郭爾羅斯
2 Inner Mongolia, abodes of the J̌osutu ayimaɣ 內蒙古卓索圖盟游牧所在: Qaracin 喀喇沁, Tümed 土默特
3 Inner Mongolia, abodes of the Jo ud ayimaɣ 內蒙古昭烏達盟游牧所在: Aoqan 敖漢, Naiman 柰曼, Baɣarin 巴林, Jarud 札嚕特, Aru Qorčin 阿嚕科爾沁, Ongniɣud 翁牛特, Kesigten 克什克騰, Left-Wing Qalqa 喀爾喀左翼
4 Inner Mongolia, abodes of the Sili-yin Ɣool ayimaɣ 內蒙古錫林郭勒盟游牧所在: Üjumüčin 烏珠穆沁, Qaɣučid 浩齋特, Sünid 蘇尼特, Abaɣa 阿巴噶, Abaɣanar 阿巴哈納爾
5 Inner Mongolia, abodes of the Ulaɣančab ayimaɣ 內蒙古烏蘭察布盟游牧所在: Dörben Keüked 四子部落, Muumingɣan 茂明安, Urad 烏喇特, Right-Wing Qalqa 喀爾喀右翼
6 Inner Mongolia, abodes of the Yeke Juu ayimaɣ 內蒙古伊克昭盟游牧所在: Ordos 鄂爾多斯
7 Outer Mongolia, introduction to the Four Qalqa tribes 外蒙古喀爾喀四部總敘. Outer Mongolia, abodes of the Qalqa Arin? ayimaɣ 外蒙古喀爾喀汗阿林盟游牧所在: Tüsiyetü Qan 土謝圖汗部
8 Outer Mongolia, abodes of the Qalqa of the Čičirlig? ayimaɣ 外蒙古喀爾喀齊齊爾里克盟游牧所在: Sayin Noyan Qan 賽音諾顏部
9 Outer Mongolia, abodes of the Qalqa of the Qarulun Barhetun? ayimaɣ 外蒙古喀爾喀喀魯倫巴爾和屯盟游牧所在: Sečen Qan 車臣汗部
10 Outer Mongolia, abodes of the Qalqa of the J̌akebila Sečin Biduliya Naɣur? ayimaɣ 外蒙古喀爾喀札克必拉色欽畢都哩雅諾爾盟游牧所在: Jasaɣtu Qan 札薩克圖汗部
11 Introduction to the Oyirad Mongols 額魯特蒙古總敘; abodes of the Alaša Oyirads 阿拉善額魯特蒙古游牧所在
12 Abodes of the Köke Naɣur Oyirad 青海額魯特蒙古游牧所在
13 Abodes of the Oyirad of the Ulangom, Dorbod and Sayinjiyaqetu ? ayimaɣ 額魯特蒙古烏蘭固木杜爾伯特部賽音濟雅哈圖盟游牧所在
14 Introduction to the Old and New Torɣut Oyirads 額魯特蒙古新舊土爾扈特部總敘; 珠勒都斯舊土爾扈特蒙古烏訥恩素珠克圖盟南路游牧所在,珠勒都斯中路和碩特蒙古巴啟色特啟勒圖盟游牧所在
15 和博克薩里舊土爾扈特蒙古烏訥恩素珠克圖盟北路游牧所在,庫爾喀喇烏蘇舊土爾扈特蒙古烏訥恩素珠克圖盟東路游牧所在,晶河舊土爾扈特蒙古烏訥恩素珠克圖盟西路游牧所在
16 Abodes of the Old Edsine-Torɣut 額濟納舊土爾扈特蒙古游牧所在, of the New Torɣut of the Blue tečilet? ayimaɣ at River Burkhan 布勒罕河新土爾扈特蒙古青色特啟勒圖盟游牧所在, of the New Qošod of Habičak 哈弼察克新和碩特蒙古游牧所在
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