An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History and Literature

Xichui zongtong shilüe 西陲總統事略

Sep 12, 2019 © Ulrich Theobald

Xichui zongtong shilüe 西陲總統事略, also called Yili zongtong shilüe 伊犁總統事略, is a book on Xinjiang originally compiled by Wang Tingkai 汪廷楷 (courtesy name Shi'an 式庵, (style Angting 號仰亭, from Dantu 丹徒, Jiangsu), revised by Sungyūn (Songyun 松筠, 1752-1835) in 1762, and in 1782 reorganized by Qi Yunshi 祁韻士 (1751-1815). The final version was published in 1808 on order of Songyun, who was at that time General of Ili (Yili jiangjun 伊犁將軍).

Figures 1-2. Maps of Xinjiang
Map of Xinjiang. The Tianshan Range in the centre, the northern route below, the southern in the upper part (Chinese orientation, south on top). In the east (left) is the magnified fortress of Jiayu Pass 嘉峪關, from where the northern route leads via Hami, Barköl (Balikun), Gucheng, Jimsa, Ürümqi (in the fold), to Ili in the west (right). The southern route goes via Hami, Qarašahar, Kuca, Aqsu, Yerkant, and Ingishahr to Kašɣar (right top). The lands of the Kazaks and Burut (Qirqiz) are in the far west. From Kašɣar, routes lead to Andijon and Kokand.
The Ili Valley (west right, east left), showing Ili River and tributary rivers, surrounding mountains, Banner garrisons of Huiyuan 惠遠 and Huining 惠寧 (orange) and Green Standard garrisons (green), with adjacent colony fields (qitun 旗屯, lüyingtun 綠營屯) and farm buildings (tunsuo 屯所). South of the Ili River are the dwellings of the Sibe Banners 錫伯八旗, apparently not in a garrison.

The book consists of 12 juan reporting the conquest of Xinjiang by the Qing 清 (1644-1911), the geography of the region, military structure, life and economy, tribes, and courier routes. The first chapters are enriched with many maps of the region.

The book was first printed in 1808 by Cheng Zhenjia 程振甲, who published a second and third print in the next years. It was also reprinted in 1829. A modern edition was published in 1958 by the Zhonghua Book Company 中國書店. All editions have two appendixes of poems, namely Sungyūn's 松筠 Suifu jilüe tushi 綏服紀略圖詩, and Qi Yunshi's Xichui zhuzhi ci 西陲竹枝詞.

The book is included in the series Zhongguo bianjiang congshu 中國邊疆叢書 (1966).

Table 1. Contents of the Xichui zongtong shilüe 西陲總統事略
1 The pacification of Ili 初定伊犁紀事, of the Uyghur land 初定回疆紀事, documents on the military settlement in Ili 伊犁駐兵書始, on the founding of military agro-colonies in Ili 伊犁興屯書始
2 General geography of the two routes south and north of the Tianshan Range 南北兩路全境圖說
3 Borders of the two routes south and north 南北兩路疆域總敘, rivers 南北兩路山水總敘, military posts 南北兩路卡倫總敘, courier stations 南北兩路軍臺總敘
4 Number of troops 官兵制額 (app. documents concerning troops 兵書), name list of officials 職官題名
5 City walls and moats 城池, institutions 衙署 (app. Banner compounds 旗井), geography and topography 疆域山川, temples and shrines 壇廟祠宇, grain supply 糧餉 (app. tea, fabric 茶布)
6 Training 訓練, weapons 兵器, rules for garrison administration 營務成案
7 Agro-colonies of troops 兵屯 (app. household colonies 戶屯, irrigation 水利), of Banner troops 旗屯 (app. irrigation 水利), of Uyghurs 回屯 (app. irrigation 水利), rules for the administration of agro-colonies 屯務成案
8 Monetary policy 錢法 (app. metal workshops 銅鉛廠, charcoal production 煤廠), shipbuilding 船工(app. dyke construction 壩工, lumber levies 木稅), books 圖籍, schools 教學, hereditary posts 世職, persons of filial conduct 節孝
9 Pastures 牧廠(=場), rules for the administration of pastures 廠務成案, military posts 卡倫, discussion on rules for military posts 會議卡倫成案
10 History of Tarbagatai 塔爾巴哈臺事略, of Ürümqi and surroundings 烏魯木齊所屬事略, of the cities in the Uyghur land 回疆各城事略
11 Origins and history of the Torɣut 土爾扈特源流, the Kazakhs 哈薩克源流, the Burut (Qirqiz) 布魯特之源流, the route to Kokand 霍罕路程記
12 Geographical issues of the Wusun of the Han period 漢烏孫釋地, of the Western Türks of the Tang period 唐西突厥釋地, on the horsees of the Kazaks 哈薩克馬說, discussion of the marvellous wowa horse 渥洼馬辯, ancient affairs of the Oyirads 厄魯特舊俗紀聞, affairs of the Uyghurs 回俗紀聞
Feng Jiqiang 馮繼強, Ma Zhenjia 馬臻加 (2015). "Xichui yaolüe, Yili zongtong shilüe zhulu bianxi 《西陲要略》《伊犁總統事略》著錄辨析", Tushuguan lilun yu shijian 圖書館理論與實踐, 2015 (12).
Gao Wende 高文德, ed. (1995). Zhongguo shaoshu minzu shi da cidian 中國少數民族史大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin jiaoyu chubanshe), 715.
He Jinshan 何金山 (1997). "Shixi Songyun Xichui zongtong shilüe zhong jingying nongye shengchen de jingji sixiang 試析松筠《西陲總統事略》中經營農業生產的經濟思想", Neimenggu shehui kexue (Wen-shi-zhe ban) 内蒙古社會科學(文史哲版), 1997 (1).
Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文郁, ed. (1996). Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 1, 1183.
Wang Juncai 王俊才, Hou Deren 侯德仁 (2006). "Qi Yunshi ji qi Xichui zongtong shilüe 祁韻士及其《西陲總統事略》", Suzhou Daxue xuebao 蘇州大學學報, 2006 (5).
Wang Zhaoming 王兆明, Fu Langyun 傅朗云, ed. (1991). Zhonghua gu wenxian da cidian 中華古文獻大辭典, Vol. Dili 地理卷 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 127.
Wu Feng 吳楓, ed. (1987). Jianming Zhongguo guji cidian 簡明中國古籍辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 308.