He hailed from Donghai 東海 (modern Cangshan 蒼山, Shandong) and was a disciple of Meng Qing 孟卿, a teacher of the Confucian Classic Chunqiu 春秋 "Spring and Autumn Annals". Shu Guang rose to the post of erudite (boshi 博士) and was granted the title of Superior Grand Master of the Palace (taizhong dafu 太中大夫). In 67 BCE he was appointed Junior Mentor of the Heir Apparent (taizi shaofu 太子少傅), shortly later Grand Mentor (taizi taifu 太子太傅). Together with his nephew Shu Shou 疏受, who was then Junior Mentor, he retired five years later and spent the rest of his life as a private person.
He wrote a commentary on the Spring and Autumn Annals, the Shuzi Chunqiu 疏子春秋.