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Huijiang tongzhi 回疆通志

Sep 13, 2019 © Ulrich Theobald

Huijiang tongzhi 回疆通志 , also called Huijiang shiyi 回疆事宜, is a local gazetteer of Xinjiang compiled by Hening 和寧 (d. 1821; also called Heying 和瑛), who is also author of the book Sanzhou jilüe 三州輯略. The Huijiang tongzhi, with a length of 12 juan, was finished in 1804.

With is section of biographies, the book is the first text that can be seen as a genuine local gazetteer of the region. It explains the region's geography, administration, military, culture and economy, and is a valuable source on Xinjiang during the mid-Qing period 清 (1644-1911).

The book begins with a source collection of poems written by the Qianlong Emperor 乾隆帝 (r. 1735-1795) on various occasions during the conquest period, as well as the text of the inscription of the steles erected in Yerkim (Ch. Ye'erqimu 葉爾奇木). The second chapter is an overview of the conditions of the Uyghur city of Hami (Ch. Hami 哈密) (imperially endorsed), combined with a biography of a local leader; the third chapter is a general overview of the Uyghurs of the region of Turfan (Ch. Tulufan 吐魯番). Chapter 4-6 includes twenty-one individual and collective biographies (liezhuan 列傳) of important persons and tribes from Xinjiang. They are copied from the official biographical collection Waifan Menggui Huibu wanggong biaozhuan 外藩蒙古回部王公表傳. It closes with three poems and prose texts written by the Qianlong Emperor on the submission and amnesty of the Torɣut.

Chapter 7 to 11 constitute 'mini-gazetteers' on specific places, namely Kašgar (Ch. Kashiga'er 喀什噶爾), Yengišahr (Ch. Yingjisha'er 英吉沙爾), Yerkant (Ch. Ye'erqiang 葉爾羌), Khotan (Ch. Hedian 和闐), Uš (Ch. Ushi 烏什), Aqsu (Ch. Akesu 阿克蘇), Kuča (Ch. Kuche 庫車), Qarašahr (Ch. Kalasha'er 喀喇沙爾), Turfan, and Hami. Each section includes eleven to fifteen sub-chapters on historical development (yange 沿革), geography (jiangyu 疆域), topography (shanchuan 山川), administrative history under the Qing (jianzhi 建置), historic places (guji 古蹟), administration system (guanzhi 官制), military and defence system (bingfang 兵防, yingwu 營伍), arsenals (junxie 軍械), military supplies (liangxiang 糧餉), military agro-colonies (bingtun 兵屯, tuntian 屯田), tax system (fushui 賦稅, gongfu 貢賦, zushui 租稅), regulations for levies (shuize 稅則), monetary policy (qianfa 錢法), various expenditures of the administration (zazhi 雜支), horse breeding (muchang 牧廠=場), military posts (kalun 卡倫, from Mong. qaraɣun), courier stations (juntai 軍臺), local rulers (boke 伯克, Turki beg بەگ) and administrative regulations (shiyi 事宜).

The chapter on Uš includes information about the saltpetre office (xiaoju 硝局) and the tribes of the Burut (Qirqiz). The chapter on Aksu includes a subchapter on river conservation (hedao 河道), that on Kuča and Qarašahr one on "Ugyhur affairs" (huiwu 回務).

The last chapter speaks of the history, tribes, customs, and economy of the Uyghurs. At least part of this chapter is derived from the book Xiyu wenjian lu 西域聞見錄 by Cišiyi 七十一 (d. 1785?).

Information on the Torɣut 土爾扈特 can be found scattered through the text.

The book existed in contemporary print form, as well as circulating manuscript versions, and was published as a modern typeset print in 1925 by the Foreign Ministry (Waijiaobu 外交部). It is included in the series Zhongguo bianjiang congshu 中國邊疆叢書 (1966).

Table 1. Contents of the Xinjiang shilüe 新疆識略
1 御制詩:平定伊犁受降、格登鄂拉斫營、鄂桑扎拉圖之戰、和洛霍澌之捷、庫隴癸之戰、烏什酋長獻城降、黑水圍解、呼爾滿大捷、通古思魯克之戰、霍斯庫魯克之戰、阿爾楚用之戰、伊西洱庫爾淖爾之戰、巴達山汗納款、平定回部獻俘、郊勞回部成功諸將士、凱宴成功諸將得詩八章、御制回疆三十韻詩、御制平定回部勒銘葉爾奇木之碑、御制雙義詩
2 欽定哈密回部總傳,額貝都拉列傳
3 吐魯番回部總傳
4 額敏和卓列傳、鄂囉木咱卜列傳、丕爾敦列傳
5 鄂對列傳、色提卜阿勒氐列傳、噶岱默特列傳、薩里列傳
6 霍集斯列傳、和什克列傳、額色尹列傳、圖爾都列傳、禡木特列傳、哈什木列傳、阿卜都爾璊列傳、帕爾薩列傳、土爾扈特傳(only those south of the Tianshan Range)、渥巴錫列傳、額默根烏巴什列傳,拜濟瑚列傳、和碩特傳、雅蘭丕勒列傳、 御制土爾扈特全部歸順詩 御制土爾扈特全部歸順記 御制優恤土爾扈特部眾記
7 Kašgar 喀什噶爾, Yengišahr 英吉沙爾
8 Yerkant 葉爾羌, Khotan 和闐
9 Uš 烏什, Aqsu 阿克蘇
10 Kuča 庫車, Qarašahr 喀喇沙爾
11 Turfan 吐魯番, Hami 哈密
12 Concise history 紀略, Uyghurian tribes 回族, customs and habits 風俗, local products 物產
Sources:
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