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Xinjiang shilüe 新疆識略

Dec 21, 2013 © Ulrich Theobald

(Qinding) Xinjiang shilüe (欽定)新疆識略 "(Imperially Endorsed) Concise Description of the New Borderlands" is a book on Xinjiang compiled between by Xu Song 徐松 (1781-1848), courtesy name Xingbo 星伯, from Daxing 大興 (today part of Beijing) and submitted to the throne in 1821 by Sungyūn (Songyun 松筠, 1752-1835). The book is an expansion of Qi Yunshi's 祁韻士 (1751-1815) Xichui zongtong shilüe 西陲總統事略 from 1782.

The main text has a length of 12 juan and an appendix of 1 fascicle. The book is headed by an introductory fascicle (juanshou 卷首) including a poem compiled by the Qianlong Emperor 乾隆帝 (r. 1735-1796), and a concise history of the conquest of Xinjiang called Zhunga'er quanbu jilüe 準噶爾全部紀略, and an account of the submission of the Torɣut Mongols, Turhute quanbu guishun ji 土爾扈特全部歸順記. The text also qutoes the inscriptions of steles erected in Ili (Ch. Yili 伊犁) and on Mt. Gedeng 格登山 (Mongolküre, Zhaosu 昭蘇縣) to commemorate the Qing 清 (1644-1911) victory of the Dzunghars (Ch. Zhunga'er 準噶爾).

The proper text begins with a general geographic description of the country, a more precise description of the lands north and south of the Tianshan Range 天山, the rivers of Xinjiang, and then provides maps of the region, and particularly the region of River Ili, which was the centre of Qing administration of Xinjiang.

The book then takes the shape of a local gazetteer and gives insight into geography and topography, routes, locations and sizes of military garrisons, military agro-colonies, arsenals, granaries, the tax quota and yields, border posts and administrative regulations, and local tribes. These informations are based on archival sources of the central administration of the Qing. The book is important to known more about the administration of Eastern Turkestan after its conquest by the Qing dynasty.

It was printed by the printing shop of the Hall of Military Glory (Wuyingdian 武英殿) directly after its submission to the throne, and there is a lithographic reprint from 1894 (Shanghai Jishan Press 上海積山書局). In 1966 the Wenhai press 文海出版社 in Taibei republished the text in the series Zhongguo bianjiang congshu 中國邊疆叢書.

Table 1. Contents of the Xinjiang shilüe 新疆識略
1 新疆總圖 General geography of Xinjiang
2 北路輿圖 Geography of the Northern Route
3 南路輿圖 Geography of the Southern Route
4 伊犁輿圖 Geography of the Ili Valley
5 官制兵額 Administration system and numbers of troops
6 屯務 Administration of the military agro-colonies
7 營務 Administration of the garrisons
8 庫儲 Arsenals and granaries
9 財務 Taxes and levies
10 廠務 Administration of pastures
11 邊衛 Border defence
12 外裔 Tribes (Kazakhs, Qirqiz)
Sources:
Diao Meilin 刁美林 (2013). "Xu Song wei Qinding Xinjiang shilüe zuozhe buzheng: Jian tan Qingren de zhuzuoquan yiyi 徐松為《欽定新疆識略》作者補證——兼談清人的著作權意識", Beifang wenwu 北方文物, 2013 (2).
Dong Xia 董霞 (2012). "Qinding Xinjiang shilüe tiyao 《欽定新疆識略》提要", Xiyu Tushuguan luntan 西域圖書館論壇, 2012 (2).
Gao Wende 高文德, ed. (1995). Zhongguo shaoshu minzu shi da cidian 中國少數民族史大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin jiaoyu chubanshe), 1671.
Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文郁, ed. (1996). Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 1, 1184.
Lü Yuliang 呂玉良, Zhao Xinghua 趙星華 (2001). "Songyun ji qi Qinding Xinjiang shilüe gei women de qidi 松筠及其《欽定新疆識略》給我們的啓迪", Zhongguo difangzhi 中國地方志, 2001 (3).
Ma Changquan 馬長泉 (2022). "Songyun he Qinding Xinjiang shilüe 松筠和《欽定新疆識略》", Kashi Shifan Xueyuan xuebao 喀什師範學院學報, 2002 (7).
Wang Zhaoming 王兆明, Fu Langyun 傅朗云, ed. (1991). Zhonghua gu wenxian da cidian 中華古文獻大辭典, Vol. Dili 地理卷 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 376.
Wu Feng 吳楓, ed. (1987). Jianming Zhongguo guji cidian 簡明中國古籍辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 896.
Xinjiang baike quanshu bianzuan weiyuanhui 《新疆百科全書》編纂委員會, ed. (2002). Xinjiang baike quanshu 新疆百科全書 (Beijing: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), 91.
Zhang Chunmei 張春梅, Ma Changquan 馬長泉 (2011). "Jianlun Songyun de kalun zhidu yanjiu: Yi Qinding Xinjiang shilüe wei zhongxin de kaocha 簡論松筠的卡倫制度研究——以《欽定新疆識略》為中心的考察", Neimenggu Shifan Daxue xuebao (Zhexue shehui kexue ban) 内蒙古師範大學學報(哲學社會科學版), 2011 (9).
Zhou Weizhou 周偉洲, Ding Jingtai 丁景泰, ed. (2006). Sichou zhi lu da cidian 絲綢之路大辭典 (Xi'an: Shaanxi renmin chubanshe), 786.