An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History and Literature

Xuegui leibian 學規類編

Nov 19, 2013 © Ulrich Theobald

Xuegui leibian 學規類編 "Classified Compilation of Rules for Learning" is a compendium on education that quotes extensively from older sources. It was compiled by the Qing-period 清 (1644-1911) scholar Zhang Boxing 張伯行 (1651-1725), who also compiled a similar book, the Yangzheng leibian 養正類編. Because of the many original sources the compendium includes, it can be called a series, although this genre can only be applied to a certain part of the book.

The first three juan of the Xuegui leibian include the school regulations of the most important Song-period 宋 (960-1279) academies, like Zhu Xi's 朱熹 (1130-1200) Bailudong jiaotiao 白鹿洞教條, the Cheng-Dong er xiansheng xueze 程董二先生學則 by Cheng Duanmeng 程端蒙 (1143-1191) and Dong Zhu 董銖 (b. 1152), Zhen Dexiu's 真德秀 (1178-1235) Jiaozi zhaigui 教子齋規, Hu Juren's 胡居仁 (1434-1484) Xu Bailudong xuegui 續白鹿洞學規, Bailudong jiangyi 白鹿洞講義 and Lizetang xueyue 麗澤堂學約 and Zhang Huang's 章璜 Weixue cidi batiao 爲學次第八條. It also includes instructions to students, like Hu Song's 胡松 (d. 1566) Yuzhusheng 諭諸生 and Gao Fenheng's 高賁亨 Shijie 十戒.

The chapters 4 and 5 describe the ancient masters' methods to read books (dushu fa 讀書法), and serve as a preparation for the study of the Confucian Classics and the important historiographical writings, as described in chapter 6. The evolution of reading skills is described in chapter 7 that quotes from Cheng Duanli's 程端禮 (1271-1345) Dushu fennian richeng 讀書分年日程. The rest of the chapter and the chapters 8 to 10 are general discussions about learning methods.

Chapters 11 to 17 are dedicated to specialized aspects of learning and teaching, like self-cultivation, respect, quiescence, the will to investigate matters, wise action and perfected knowledge, the willingness to give up one's own desires and to amend faults, the consolidation of the mind and the will to think and act in righteous manners. These statements are supported by quotations from the ancient masters in chapter 18.

The next part discusses the study of history, Chinese characers, the preparation for the state examinations, and the reading of poems and high-quality literature. Chapter 20 quotes from admonitions (zhen 箴) to students and teachers, as well as inscriptions (ming 銘) from various schools. The rest of the book is very heterogeneous and again quotes from texts already used in earlier chapters of the compendium. It includes, among others, a revised version of the organization of the community compound, Lüshi xiangyue 呂氏鄉約, compiled by the brothers Lü Dazhong 呂大忠 (d. 1082) and Lü Dalin 呂大臨 (1044-1091), and a discussion of Zhu Xi on school graduates, the Xuexiao gongju siyi 學校貢舉私議.

Although the title of the book suggests that the work deals only with school regulations (xuegui 學規), it also includes a large amount of general prescriptons for social behaviour, and instructions for the best way of successful studies.

The Xuegui leibian is to be found in the series Zhengyitang quanshu 正誼堂全書 and Congshu jicheng chubian 叢書集成初編.

Huang Mingxi 黄明喜 (1996). "Xuegui leibian 學規類編", in Zhou Gucheng 周谷城, ed. Zhongguo xueshu mingzhu tiyao 中國學術名著提要, Vol. Jiaoyu 教育卷 (Shanghai: Fudan daxue chubanshe), 428.