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Huogong qieyao 火攻挈要

Jan 15, 2011 © Ulrich Theobald

Huogong qieyao 火攻挈要 "All important matters of war with firearms" is a richly illustrated book on firearms written during the late Ming period 明 (1368-1644) by Jiao Xu 焦勖 xxx and commented by Zhao Zhong 趙仲. Jiao was instructed by the Jesuit missionary Adam Schall von Bell (1592-1666, Chinese name Tang Ruowang 湯若望). The book was finished in 1643 and is divided into two juan, and also includes a supplement called Huogong biyao 火攻秘要. There is a manuscript of this original version owned by the Beijing Library 北京圖書館. Another version is the revision by Pan Shicheng 潘士成 xxx, editor of the series Haishanxianguan congshu 海山仙館叢書, who made the supplement simply a third fascicle. In some catalogues, the title of the book is called Zekelu 則克錄 "Rules for defence".

There are 27 illustrations showing the loading and use of muskets and other firearms, as well as facilities for casting cannons, a proficiency taught to Chinese craftsmen by Jesuit experts.

Figures 1-5. Illustrations from the Huogong qieyao 火攻挈要
Image of a barrel-casting platform (zhuchongtai 鑄銃臺). The three-dimensional perspective is not well caught. The centre seems to symbolized the opening (wojing 窩井 ) of the mold where the bronze is poured in. Haishanxianguan congshu 海山仙館叢書 edition.
A construction to apply and finish the bore of the barrel.
Various implements to load and clean a barrel (rammer 銃橇, worm or scourer 轉杖, broom or sponge 銃箒, linstock 火繩 xxx, to the right: gunpowder ladle 藥 xxx), as well as two guns ("high-[reaching] gun" 高機 and wolf gun" 狼機 with a "mother barrel" 母銃).
"Flame thrower" with grape shot (pentong 噴筒) and rocket (huojian 火箭).
xxx
Sources:
Beijing dongfang shoucangjia xiehui 北京東方收藏家協會, ed. (1996). Zonghua shoucang da cidian 中華收藏大辭典 (Beijing: Beijing Yanshan chubanshe), 407.
Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文郁, ed. (1996). Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 2, 1632.
Liu Qing 劉慶 (1996). "Huogong qieyao 火攻挈要”, in Feng Kezheng 馮克正, Fu Qingsheng 傅慶升, ed. Zhuzi baijia da cidian 諸子百家大辭典 (Shenyang: Liaoning renmin chubanshe), 419.
Pei Qing 裴青 (1993). "Huogong qieyao 火攻挈要”, in Ru Xin 汝信, ed. Shijie baike zhuzuo cidian 世界百科著作辭典 (Beijing: Zhongguo gongren chubanshe), 204.
Wan Fang 万方 (2016). "Zhonghua bingshu baodian: Huogong qieyao 中华兵书宝典——《火攻挈要》", Shuwu 书屋, 2016 (4): 1.
Wang Qingyu 王慶余 (1989). "Huogong qieyao 火攻挈要", in Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, part Junshi 軍事 (Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), Vol. 1, 415.
Xu Xinzhao 徐新照 (2002). "Cong Xifa shenji yu Huogong qieyao kan Ming mo dui chongpao tandaoxue de renshi 从《西法神机》与《火攻挈要》看明末对铳炮弹道学的认识", Lishi dang'an 历史档案, 2002 (1): 80-83.
Xu Xinzhao 徐新照 et al. (2007). "Lun woguo Mingdai huoqi jishu Xiren suo chuan shuo: Yi Ming mo Xifa shenji he Huogong qieyao wei li 论我国明代火器技术“西人所传”说——以明末《西法神机》和《火攻挈要》为例", Neimenggu Shifan Daxue xuebao (Ziran kexue Hanwen ban) 内蒙古师范大学学报(自然科学汉文版). 2007 (6): 734-737.
Yin Xiaodong 尹晓冬 (2009). "Shiqi shiji chuan Hua Xiyang tongpao zhizao jishu yanjiu: Yi Xifa shenji, Huogong qieyao wei zhongxin 17世纪传华西洋铜炮制造技术研究———以《西法神机》、《火攻挈要》为中心", Zhongguo keji shi zazhi 中国科技史杂志, 2009 (4): 377-395.
Zhang Ziwen 张子文 (1985). "Huogong qieyao zhong de ji de tandaoxue wenti 《火攻挈要》中的几个弹道学问题", Neimenggu Shifan Daxue xuebao (Ziran kexue Hanwen ban) 内蒙古师范大学学报(自然科学汉文版), 1985 (1): 70-77.