Jixiao xinshu 紀效新書 "New book on effectful discipline" is a military treatise written during the Ming period 明 (1368-1644) by Qi Jiguang 戚繼光 (1528-1588), courtesy name Yuanjing 元敬, style Nantang 南塘 or Mengzhu 孟諸, from Dengzhou 登州, Shandong. He hailed from a family of military officers and thus started an early career in the military. Qi participated in campaigns against the Wokou 倭寇 pirates, mainly in the region of Fujian, where he was made provincial general (zongbing 總兵) because of his achievements. Afterwards he was dispatched to the northern borderland to fight against the Mongols, where he initiated reconstruction works at the Great Wall. He was regarded highly by Counsellor-in-chief Zhang Juzheng 張居正 (1525-1582) and Minister of War Tan Lun 譚綸 (1519-1577). For fourteen years, Qi served as General of Suzhou 薊州, Jiangsu. He was rewarded with the honorific titles of Junior Guardian (shaobao 少保, see Three Dukes) and Grand Guardian of the Heir Apparent (taizi taibao 太子太保).
Qi Jiguang's literary products include, among others, the military treatise Lianbing shiji 練兵實紀. His collected writings are called Zhizhitang ji 止止堂集. Miscellaneous literary products are found in the books Yuyu gao 愚愚稿 and Hengshuo gao 橫槊稿.
The book Jixiao xinshu has a length of 18 juan. There is also a version from the late Ming period with 14 juan which in some chapters differs from the 18-juan version. The book is enriched with illustrations.
The Jixiao xinshu mainly deals with the body of troops, from selecting able-bodies peasants, grouping them into units, teaching them commands, signals and battle movements, their way of life in the encampments, the art of fighting, and different ways of warfare, especially naval warfare, but also the defence of forts along the coast. From his own personal experience, the author elucidates the most important points to be observed. In a general treatise, Qi Jiguang gives an overview of the situation along the southern coast and describes how troops could be trained to met the challenges the coastal defense was exposed to, for instance. The main enemy at this part of the empire were pirates, not only at the coast, but also far into the hinterland where the raiders had access to along the many rivers and canals.
A general must dispose of a body of able troops on which he could rely in all situations. The spirit of the corps was a very important issue, which could only built up if the troops learned in practice how to fight. Training was a very important method to have an excellent army at hand. If the troops were well-trained in all different methods of fighting, they would be able to immediately obey the commander's order to change tactics according to the actual situation. The Jixiao xinshu describes quite a few contemporary firearms and other weapons used in fighting which shows the wide range of muskets and cannons the Ming armies disposed of.
There are several prints from the Ming and the Qing 清 (1644-1911) periods. One print from 1797 is preserved in Japan. The Jixiao xinshu is included in the series Siku quanshu 四庫全書 and Mohai jinhu 墨海金壺.
Beijing dongfang shoucangjia xiehui 北京東方收藏家協會, ed. (1996). Zonghua shoucang da cidian 中華收藏大辭典 (Beijing: Beijing Yanshan chubanshe), 408.
Deng Xingfeng 鄧興鋒 (1993). "Mingdai kouyu yanjiu de xin cailiao: Jixiao xinshu yuyan tedian lishuo 明代口語研究的新材料——《紀效新書》語言特點例說", Huaiyin Shizhuan xuebao 淮陰師專學報, 1993 (3): 88-89.
Ding Chuanwei 丁傳偉, Zhang Zhen 張珍 (2016). "Jixiao xinshu wuxue jiexi 《紀效新書》武學解析", Lantai shijie 蘭台世界, 2016 (18): 128-131.
Du Chao 杜超 (2013). "Jixiao xinshu de shishi qiushi jingshen ji qi xianshi jiejian jiazhi 《紀效新書》的實事求是精神及其現實借鑑價值", Binzhou Xueyuan xuebao 濱州學院學報, 2013 (5): 209-213.
Hou Yang 侯陽 (2014). "Cong Jixiao xinshu he Lianbing shiji kan Qi Jiguang de junshi jiaoyu sixiang 從《紀效新書》和《練兵實紀》看戚繼光的軍事教育思想", Jingji yanjiu kaokan 經濟研究導刊, 2014 (6): 275-276.
Huang Shuihua 黃水華 (1997). "Jixiao xinshu 紀效新書", in Men Kui 門巋, Zhang Yanjin 張燕瑾, eds. Zhonghua guocui da cidian 中華國粹大辭典 (Xianggang: Guoji wenhua chuban gongsi), 152.
Jin Shuangping 金雙平 (2015). "Cong Jixiao xinshu kan Qi Jiguang de lianzuozhi 從《紀效新書》看戚繼光的“連坐制”", Anhui wenxue (xiabanyue) 安徽文學(下半月), 2015 (8): 157-158.
Kou Yue 寇月 (2018). "Jiyu Jixiao xinshu Quajing pian dui shuaifa jishu de pouxi yanjiu 基于《紀效新書〈拳經篇〉》對摔法技術的剖析研究", Zhonghua wushu 中華武術, 2018 (1): 17-20.
Li Xiaoyan 李曉艷 (2012). "Jixiao xinshu de kanxing yu wushu neirong kao 《紀效新書》的刊行與武術内容考", Zhejiang tiyu kexue 浙江體育科學. 2012 (4): 20-22+27.
Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文郁, eds. (1996). Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 2, 1625.
Li Zhengfu 李正夫 (1993). "Jixiao xinshu 紀效新書", in Shi Quanchang 石泉長, ed. Zhonghua baike yaolan 中華百科要覽 (Shenyang: Liaoning renmin chubanshe), 283.
Liang Juanjuan 梁娟娟 (2013). "Cong Jixiao xinshu Danqi pian kan Qi Jiguang de zhiqi sixiang 從《紀效新書·膽氣篇》看戚繼光的治氣思想", Binzhou Xueyuan xuebao 濱州學院學報, 2013 (5): 197-203.
Liu Qing 劉慶 (1996). "Jixiao xinshu 紀效新書", in Feng Kezheng 馮克正, Fu Qingsheng 傅慶升, eds. Zhuzi baijia da cidian 諸子百家大辭典 (Shenyang: Liaoning renmin chubanshe), 416.
Liu Xiangyang 劉向陽 (2001). "Jixiao xinshu, Lianbing shiji de junshi fazhi sixiang 《紀效新書》、《练兵实纪》的軍事法制思想", Zhengzhi luncong 政法論叢, 2001(5).
Liu Xudong 劉旭東 (2015). "Cong Qi Jiguang Jixiao xinshu kan Zhongguo wushu he junshi jishu de jiehe 從戚繼光《紀效新書》看中國武術和軍事技術的結合", Wushu yanjiu 武術研究, 2015 (5): 5-7.
Ma Bin 馬斌, Ma Lan 馬蘭 (2015). "Cong Jixiao xinshu kan Qi Jixuang fazhan wushu shiyongxing sixiang yu duice 從《紀效新書》看戚繼光發展武術實用性思想與對策", Dangdai tiyu keji 當代體育科技, 2015 (10): 205-206.
Niu Congwei 牛聰偉, Liang Xiaojuan 梁小娟 (2015). "Cong Jixiao xinghu zhong yinfa dui wushu gongfang yishi de sikao 從《紀效新書》中引發對武術攻防意識的思考", Wushu yanjiu 武術研究, 2015 (6): 35-37.
Pei Qing 裴青 (1993). "Jixiao xinshu 紀效新書", in Ru Xin 汝信, ed. Shijie baike zhuzuo cidian 世界百科著作辭典 (Beijing: Zhongguo gongren chubanshe), 204.
Qi Shan 祁山 (2013). "Jixiao jinshu chuanru Chaoxian bandao de beijing ji yingxiang 《紀效新書》傳入朝鮮半島的背景及影響", Shandong Qingnian Zhengzhi Xueyuan xuebao 山東青年政治學院學報, 2013 (5): 137-140.
Sun Weiguo 孫衛國 (2018). "Jixiao xinshu yu Chaoxian wangchao junzhi gaige 《紀效新書》與朝鮮王朝軍制改革", Nankai xuebao (Zhexue shehui kexue ban) 南開學報(哲學社會科學版), 2018 (4): 116-129.
Wan Fang 萬方 (2016). "Zhonghua bingshu baodian: Jixiao xinshu 中華兵書寶典——《紀效新書》", Shuwu 書屋, 2016 (3): 1.
Wang Zhaocun 王兆春 (1987). "Cong Jixiao xinshu yu Lianbing shiyi kan Qi Jiguang dui gudai junshixue de gongxian 從《紀效新書》與《練兵實紀》看戚繼光對古代軍事學的貢獻", Junshi lishi yanjiu 軍事歷史研究, 1987 (3): 188-198+102.
Wen Li 溫力 (2003). "Cong Qi Jiguang de shisi juan ben Jixiao xinshu kan huoqi de fazhang dui junshi he wushu fazhan de yingxiang 從戚繼光的十四卷本《紀效新書》看火器的發展對軍事和武術發展的影響", Wuhan Tiyu xueyuan xuebao 武漢體育學院學報, 2003 (1): 152-153+162.
Xie Xianghao 謝祥皓 (2016). "Jixiao xinshu, Lianbing shiji 《紀效新書》《練兵實紀》", Sunzi yanjiu 孫子研究, 2016 (5): 130.
Yang Qingwang 楊慶旺, Ha Hua 哈鏵, eds. (1987). Zhongguo junshi zhishi cidian 中國軍事知識辭典 (Beijing: Huaxia chubanshe), 347.
Yue Ling 岳岭 (2012). "Jixiao xinshu junshi sixiang de yanjiu shulüe 《紀效新書》軍事思想的研究述略", Jiamusi Zhiye Xueyuan xuebao 佳木斯職業學院學報, 2012 (9): 26+28,
Zhang Lijun 張立軍 (2013). "Jixiao xinshu Quanjing jieyao pian dui Ming-Qing quanshu de yingxiang qiantan 《紀效新書·拳經捷要篇》對明清拳術的影響淺探", Lantai shijie 蘭台世界, 2013 (26): 158-159.
Zhao Na 趙娜 (2012). "Mao Yuanyi Wubeizhi yu Qi Jiguang zhushu guanxi kao 茅元儀《武備志》與戚繼光著述關係考", Henan Shifan Daxue xuebao (Zhexue shehui kexue ban) 河南師範大學學報(哲學社會科學版), 2012 (3): 141-144.
Zhu Xiaohong 朱曉紅 (2006). "Jixiao xinshu junfa sixiang jiexi 《紀效新書》“軍法”思想解析", Xi'an Zhengzhi Xueyuan xuebao 西安政治學院學報, 2006 (4): 60-63.
Zhu Xiaohong 朱曉紅 (2013). "Woguo chuantong zhijun sixiang de jiben tedian: Yi Jixiao xinshu wei li 我國傳統治軍思想的基本特點——以《紀效新書》為例", Binzhou Xueyuan xuebao 濱州學院學報, 2013 (5): 204-208.
Zou Jing 鄒經 (1989). "Jixiao xinshu 紀效新書", in Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, part Junshi 軍事 (Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), Vol. 1, 440.