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Chinese Literature
Gengzhitu 耕織圖 "Drawings of Tilling and Weaving"


The Gengzhitu 耕織圖 "Drawings of tilling and weaving" is a book on agriculture and sericulture written by the Southern Song period 南宋 (1127-1279) scholar Lou Shou 樓璹, courtesy name Lou Shouyu 樓壽玉 or Lou Guoqi 樓國器. He came from Yinxian 鄞縣 in the prefecture of Mingzhou 明州 (modern Ningbo 寧波, Zhejiang) and occupied the office of magistrate (ling 令) of Qianxian 潜縣. In remembrance of the hard work the peasants and their families did, he compiled a book giving an overview over their activities. The 2 juan "scrolls" long book was finished around 1132 and submitted to the throne. It was highly welcomed as a support to the court's attempts at promoting the output of agriculture. In later years Lou Shou was accounting officer in the Court of the Imperial Treasury (shenjisi 審計司), naval commissioner (boshi 舶使) of Guang-Min, grain transport commissioner (caoyunshi 漕運使) of Hubei, Hunan and Huaidong, and commander of the provincial army of Changsha.
The transmitted version of the Gengzhitu consists of illustrations and 45 descriptive five-syllable poems. It is China's oldest illustrated book that describes whole processes in agriculture and silk production. It is divided into the parts Gengtu 耕圖 "Picures of ploughing" and Zhitu 織圖 "Pictures of Weaving". The first parts consists of 21 illustrations, the second part of 24 illustrations.
The illustrations do not only show actions, but also a large inventory of agricultural tools that were in used in the lower Yangtze region during the Song period 宋 (960-1279). Some of these are of special interest, like the "sowing horse" (yangma 秧馬), or the use of stone rollers (liudu 碌碡) to level fields. The illustrated character of the Gengzhitu provided a paradigm for many later books specialized in technical fields, agriculture or astronomy, like Wang Zheng's 王禎 Nongshu 農書, the Tiangong kaiwu 天工開物, the Nongzheng quanshu 農政全書 or the Shoushi tongkao 授時通考. While the illustrations served to "describe all circumstances" (tuhui yi jin qi zhuang 圖繪以盡其狀), the poems served to "describe their feelings" (shige yi jin qi qing 詩歌以盡其情), namely those of hard labour, and how to make it easier with the help of various machines and implements.
The Gengzhitu was first printed by Lou Shou's grandsons Lou Hong 樓洪 and Lou Shen 樓深. Except the Lou Shou's Gengzhitu, a book with the similar title was written by Liu Songnian 劉松年 during the Southern Song period, and by Cheng Qi 程棨 during the Yuan period 元 (1279-1368). Yet these two books are more or less copies of Liu Shou's masterwork. During the Ming period 明 (1368-1644) Song Zonglu 宋宗魯 reprinted the Gengzhitu, but of his version, only some fragments have survived. An imitation and reorganization of the Gengzhitu can also be found in the book Bianmin tuzuan 便民圖纂 from the Wanli reign 萬曆 (1573-1619). The poems were in this version rewritten as so-called "Bamboo twig songs" (zhuzhi ci 竹枝詞). During the Qing period 清 (1644-1911) the Kangxi emperor 康熙 (1662-1722) ordered Jiao Bingzhen 焦秉貞 revising the Gengzhitu to a high-quality edition that it might be distributed in the empire. The same happened during the Yongzheng 雍正 (1723-1735) and Qianlong reigns 乾隆 (1736-1795), but of the many Qing period versions, a lot of which were in possession of the imperial house, not many have survived. The Kangxi version from 1696 is transmitted under the title of Yuzhi gengzhi tu 御制耕織圖 because the seven-syllable poems of this version were "made by the Emperor" (yuzhi 御制). It differs from the original Song period version in the titles of illustrations (Caisang 採桑, Yangcan 養蠶, Shangcu 上簇, Zejian 擇繭, Gaojian {宀/告}繭, Saosi 繅絲, Luosi 絡絲, Juanwei 卷緯, Zhengjing 整經, Zhiji 織機, Fanhua 攀華 (or Tihua 提花) and Ranse 染色). Three drawings have been omitted (Xiacan 下蠶, Weican 喂蠶, Yimin 一眠), but Jiao Bingzhen added two pictures of dyeing (Ranse) and finishing clothes (Chengyi 成衣). Cheng Qi's version served as the blueprint for the Qianlong edition. The picures were revised by the painter Jiang Bo 蔣溥. This single copy was stored in the Guiji shantang 貴積山堂 library of the Yuanming Garden 圓明園. In 1769 the Qianlong emperor added his own poems for this edition that was from then on stored in the Jiaxuan Hall 稼軒. When the British and French sacked the Yuanming Palace in 1860 the book went lost. It might be that it is the version owned by the Freer Gallery of Art. Another Qianlong edition is owned by the Historical Museum of China 中國歷史博物館. The problem of such revisions is that the illustrations show tools from the Qing period and not those from the Song. The drawings were also created with modern techniques, and so substantially altered the original version of Lou Shou. The Gengzhitu was also reproduced on private initiative by the Wenduan Hall 文瑞樓 and the Dianshi Hall 點石齋.
The Gengzhitu is included in the collectanea Zhibuzuzhai congshu 知不足齋叢書, Longwei mishu 龍威秘書, Yiyuan junhua 藝苑捃華, Jiayongxuan congshu 嘉詠軒叢書 and Congshu jicheng 叢書集成. In most of these it is known under the title Yuqian ling Lou Gong jin gengzhi ertu shi 於潛令樓公進耕織二圖詩. The Gengzhitu also found reception in Korea and Japan.


Sources:
Hao Hanyu 高漢玉, Shi Bokui 史伯奎 (1984). "Gengzhitu 耕織圖", in: Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Fangzhi 紡織, Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe, p. 99.
Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文鬰 (1996). Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典, Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe, vol. 2, p. 1651.
Peng Shijiang 彭世獎 (1995). "Gengzhitu 耕織圖", in: Zhongguo nongye baike quanshu 中國農業百科全書, Nongye lishi 農業歷史卷, Beijing: Nongye chubanshe, p. 71.
Wang Guzhong 王國忠 (1996). "Gengzhitu 耕織圖", in: Zhongguo xueshu mingzhu tiyao 中國學術名著提要, Keji 科技, Shanghai: Fudan daxue chubanshe, p. 404.
Wang Yuhu 王毓瑚 (1964). Zhongguo nongxue shulu 中國農學書錄, Beijing: Nongye chubanshe, p. 88.
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May 28, 2013 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail