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Chinese Literature
Liushi Jupu 劉氏菊譜 "Notes on Chrysanthemums by Master Liu"


The Liushi Jupu 劉氏菊譜 is a book on chrysanthemums written by the Song period 宋 (960-1279) scholar Liu Meng 劉蒙, who hailed from Pengcheng 彭城 (modern Xuzhou 徐州, Jiangsu). His short book, finished in 1104, is called Liushi Jupu and not simply Jupu 菊譜 in order not to get confused with Shi Zhengzhi's 史正志 book on this kind of flower, the Shishi Jupu 史氏菊譜.
Liu's book is divided into five chapters. It begins with an account how in ancient times, people estimated chrysanthemums and compiled poems about his kind of flower. Liu Meng then describes the practical use of chrysanthemums and their cultivation, and ends with an account on the origin of his book. He once visited Liu Yuansun 劉元孫 during a travel, where he was enchanted by the collection of chrysanthemums Liu cultivated. Both then decided to compile a book on chrysanthemums. In the second part Liu Meng gives a critical overview on ancient and contemporary statements about chrysanthemums. In the third part, he provides criteria to assess the quality of a chrysanthemum flower, like colour, fragrance, and appearance. The "queen" of chrysanthemums was, in his eyes, the longnao 龍腦 "Dragon brain". In the subsequent part, all different kinds of flowers are ranked according to the qualifying criteria set up in the previous chapter. It includes 35 kinds in total. The book ends with a chapter with miscellaneous information and addenda. Liu Meng's book is important for the history of chrysanthemum cultivation (particularly in the region south of the Yellow River: he mentions the places Bianliang 汴梁, i.e. Kaifeng 開封, Xijing 西京, i.e. Luoyang 洛陽, Chenzhou 陳州 or Huaiyang 淮陽, Dengzhou 鄧州 or Dengxian 鄧縣, Yongzhou 雍州 or Xiangyang 襄陽, Xiangzhou 相州 or Anyang 安陽, Huazhou 滑州 or Huaxian 滑縣, Luzhou 鄜州 or Fengxian 富縣 and Yangzhai 陽翟 or Yuxian 禹縣) because it is much more detailed than other books on chrysanthemums, especially about the places of origin and the different kinds of the plower. Unfortunately it speaks not a lot about growing, watering and the diseases of chrysanthemums.
The Liushi Jupu is included in the collectanea Baichuan xuehai 百川學海, Shuofu 說郛, Xiangyan congshu 香艷叢書 and Siku quanshu 四庫全書.

There are nearly 40 traditinal books on chrysanthemums, the most important of which are Liushi jupu, Shishi jupu, Fan Chengda's 范成大 Fancun jupu 范村菊譜 (all from the Song period), Huang Cengsheng's 黄省曾 Yijushu 藝菊書 from the Ming period 明 (1368-1644) , and Lu Tingcan's 陸廷燦 Yijuzhi 藝菊志 from the Qing period 清 (1644-1911).
A further book on chrysanthemums was written by the Ming period scholar Zhou Lüjing 周履靖, courtesy name Zhou Yizhi 周逸之. He came from Jiaxing 嘉興, Zhejiang, and authored a lot of texts on the hobbies of literati like calligraphy, and published the collectaneum Yimen guangdu 夷門廣牘. His short book describes the cultivation of chrysanthemums as well as the appearance of the plants, with different leaves and flowers. He classifies 15 different types of flowers with detailed descriptions. The text is to be found in the Yimen guangdu.
The Qing period master Ye Tianpei 葉天培, courtesy name Ye Meifu 葉槑夫 wrote a 2 juan long book Jupu during the Qianlong reign 乾隆 (1736-1796). He was an expert in the cultivation of these flowers and his book must therefore be taken seriously. It describes all aspects of cultivation in much closer detail than all earlier texts. It also covers as much as 145 different kinds of chrysanthemums many of which are not mentioned in earlier texts. The book was finished in 1776 and soon printed. It was copied half by Zang Gu 臧谷 for his book Wenchunguan julu 問秋館菊錄, where it is called Ye Meifu yang ju fa 葉槑夫養菊法.
Prince Hongjiao 弘皎 (died 1764), style Jingzhai 鏡齋, commandery prince of Qingning 清寧郡王, a grand-son of the Kangxi emperor 康熙 (r. 1661-1722) and son of Prince Yunxiang 允祥, Hosoi Yi qinwang 和碩怡親王, wrote a short book on chrysanthemums. He mainly describes the types of flowers he had acquired in southern China and successfully cultivated in Beijing. The text gives detailed description of one hundred kinds of flowers that are classified into nine categories. The author added at table to the book. Unfortunately no concrete instructions for the cultivation of chrysanthemum are given. The text was printed in 1746 by the Chunhui Hall 春暉堂. Another copy from the Guangxu reign 光緒 (1875-1908) survived, published by the Yuejiao Hall 樂椒軒.
The following list gives an overview of the most important surviving traditional books on chrysanthemums written in China:
菊譜 Jupu (劉氏菊譜 Liushi jupu) (Song) 劉蒙 Liu Meng
菊譜 一卷 Jupu (史氏菊譜 Shishi jupu, 史老圃菊譜 Shi Laopu jupu) (Song) 史正志 Shi Zhengzhi
范村菊譜 一卷 Fancun jupu (石湖菊譜 Shihu jupu) (Song) 范成大 Fan Chengda
百菊集譜 六卷 Baiju jupu (Song) 史鑄 Shi Zhu
菊名篇 一卷 Juming pian (part of 百菊集譜 Baiju jipu) (Song) 沈競 Shen Jing
圖形菊譜 二卷 Tuxing jupu (fragment) (Song) 胡融 Hu Rong
菊譜 一卷 Jupu (lost) (Song) 馬楫 Ma Ji
藝菊書 一卷 Yijushu (藝菊譜 Yijupu) (Ming) 黄省曾 Huang Shengceng
菊譜 xxx 卷 Jupu (Ming) 周履靖 Zhou Lüjing
樂休園菊譜 一卷 Lexiuyuan jupu (Ming) NN
三徑怡閒錄 二卷 Sanjing yixian lu (Ming) 高濂 Gao Lian
菊譜 一卷 Jupu (chapter of 遵生八牋 Zunsheng bajian) (Ming) 高濂 Gao Lian
種菊法 一卷 Zhongjufa (Ming) 陳繼儒 Chen Jiru
澹圃菊譜 二卷 Danpu jupu (lost) (Ming) 施三捷 Shi Sanjie
高松菊譜 Gao Song jupu (Ming) 高松 Gao Song
渡花居東籬集 一卷 Duhuaju dongli ji (Ming) 屠承XXX Tu Cheng xxx
德善齋菊譜 一卷 Deshenzhai jupu (lost) (Ming) 王有炫 Zhou Youxuan
藝菊志 一卷 Yijuzhi (lost) (Ming) 張元玘 Zhang Yuanqi
菊月令 一卷 Juyueling (lost?) (Ming) 姚綬 Yao Shou
菊譜 一卷 Jupu (part of 農譜 Nongpu) (Ming) 文應魯 Wen Yinglu
菊書 xxx 卷 Jushu (Ming) 張應文 Zhang Yingwen
藝菊志 八卷 Yijuzhi (Qing) 陸廷燦 Lu Tingcan
菊譜 一卷 Jupu (part of 藝菊志 Yijuzhi) (Qing) 呂天 Lü Tian
菊譜 一卷 Jupu
(app.) 菊表 Jubiao
(Qing) 秋明主人 Qiuming zhuren (多羅寧郡王弘晈 Doro Ningjun wang Hongjiao)
洋菊譜 一卷 Yangjupu (Qing) 鄒一桂 Zou Yigui
菊譜 二卷 Jupu (Qing) 葉天培 Ye Tianpei
問秋館菊錄 一卷 Wenqiuguan julu
霜圃識餘 二卷 Shuangpu shiyu
(Qing) 竹西菊隱翁 Zhuxiju yinweng (臧穀 Zang Gu)
藝菊簡易 一卷 Yiju jianyi (Qing) 徐京 Xu Jing
菊說 一卷 Jushuo (Qing) 計楠 Jin Nan
九華新譜 一卷 Jiuhua xinpu (Qing) 吳昇 Wu Sheng
藝菊新編 一卷 Yiju xinbian (Qing) 蕭清泰 Xiao Qingtai
西吳菊略 一卷 Xiwu julüe (Qing) 程岱葊 Cheng Daihe
菊志 一卷 Juzhi (蔬香小圃菊譜 Shuxiang xiaopu jupu) (Qing) 何鼎 He Ding
菊圃錄 一卷 Jupulu (lost) (Qing) 孔正茂 Kong Zhengmao
東籬纂要 十卷 Dongli zuanyao (Qing) 邵承熙 Shao Chengxi
藝菊須知 二卷 Yiju xuzhi (Qing) 顧祿 Gu Lu
藝菊法 一卷 Yijufa (Qing) 上海慕陶居士 Shanghai Mutao jushi
藝菊瑣言 一卷 Yiju suoyan (Qing) 陳葆善 Chen Baoshan
菊譜 一卷 Jupu (lost) (Qing) 劉承瀟 Liu Chengxiao
菊譜 一卷 Jupu (lost) (Qing) 張漢超 Zhang Hanchao
菊譜 一卷 Jupu (lost) (Qing) 柳灝 Liu Hao
菊說 Jushuo (春暉堂菊說 Chunhuitang jushuo) (Rep) 許衍灼 Xu Yanzhuo

Sources:
Li Ming 李明 (1993). "Jupu 菊譜", in: Shi Quanchang 石泉長 (ed.), Zhonghua baike yaolan 中華百科要覽, Shenyang: Liaoning renmin chubanshe, p. 990.
Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文鬰 (1996). Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典, Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe, vol. 2, p. 1865.
Sun Zhaoliang 孫兆亮, Xu Weitong 徐維統 (1992). "Jupu 菊譜", in: Zhongguo xueshu mingzhu tiyao 中國學術名著提要, Keju 科技卷, Shanghai: Fudan daxue chubanshe, p. 700.
Wu Feng 吳楓 (ed. 1987). Jianming Zhongguo guji cidian 簡明中國古籍辭典, Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe, p. 774.
Zhongguo nongye baike quanshu zong bianji weiyuanhui 中國農業百科全書總編輯委員會 (ed. 1996) Zhongguo nongye baike quanshu 中國農業百科全書, Guanshang yuanyi juan 觀賞園藝卷, Beijing: Nongye chubanshe, p. 241.
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June 17, 2011 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail