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Kongzi jiyu 孔子集語


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The Kongzi jiyu 孔子集語 "Collected sayings of Confucius" is a collection of sayings attributed to the philosopher Confucius. It is a supplement to the so-called "Confucian Analects" Lunyu 論語. It was compiled by the Southern Song period 南宋 (1127-1279) scholar Xue Ju 薛據 (dates not known). In the original version, each of the 20 juan "scrolls" corresponded to one chapter. The received version is arranged in 3 juan, but the text is complete. Xue Ju collected sayings of Confucius and dialogs between him and his scholars that were not included in the Lunyu. In his foreword, Xue Ju says that the did use all kinds of ancient books, except the Zengzi 曾子, Da Dai Liji 大戴禮記, Kongcongzi 孔叢子, Kongzi jiayu 孔子家語, Zuozhuan 左氏, Zhuangzi 莊子, Xunzi 荀子 and Liezi 列子, which is not correct, because the Kongzi jiyu does quote from some of those sources, as well as from the biography of Confucius in the history Shiji 史記. The arrangement of the quotations is not very good. He quotes, for example, from three very different paragraphs in the dictionary Shuowen jiezi 說文解字, and subsumes these heterogeneous statements under one paragraphs. Xue's collection is also by no means complete. He does not, for instance, refer to all quotations in the Hanfeizi 韓非子 or those in the Huainanzi 淮南子. Inspite of these shortcomings, the Kongzi jiyu contains a lot of fragements quoted in books, which have long since lost.
The oldest surviving print was made by the Ming period 明 (1368-1644) scholar Zhong Renjie 鍾仁傑. In 1737 it was printed by Kong Guangqi 孔廣啓, Duke Yansheng 衍聖公. It included in the collectanea Tang-Song congshu 唐宋叢書, Siku quanshu 四庫全書 and Zishu baizhong 子書百種. The best version is that of the Tianyige Library 天一閣.

Another compilation with the title Kongzi jiyu 孔子集語 was published by the Qing period 清 (1644-1911) scholar Sun Xingyan 孫星衍 in 1816. Older supplements to the "Sayings" were either lost (as Emperor Wu's 梁武帝 Kongzi zhengyan 孔子正言 from the Liang period or Wang Bo's 王勃 Ci lunyu 次論語), or incomplete, as Yang Jian's 楊簡 Xiansheng daxun 先聖大訓, Xue Ju's 薛據 Kongzi jiyu 孔子集語, Pan Shida's 潘士達 Lunyu waipian 論語外篇 or Cao Tingdong's 曹廷棟 Kongzi yiyu 孔子逸語. While the Kongzi jiyu collection by Xue Ju 薛據 mainly quoted from the subclassics Chunqiu fanlu 春秋繁露 and Hanshi waizhuan 韓詩外傳, Sun Xingyan and his collaborators Sun Xinghai 孫星海 and Gong Qing 龔慶 collected only quotations from Confucian classics and their commentaries, as well as from Confucian treatises, apocryphal classics, history books, the "Masters and philosophers", and encyclopaedias from the Tang 唐 (618-907) and Song 宋 (960-1279) periods. The book is 17 juan long and is divided into 17 chapters, each dealing with one aspect of Confucius' teachings. Inside the chapters, quotations are arranged hierarchically, beginning with the Classics. The structure of the book was inspired by Liu Xiang's 劉向 Shuoyuan 說苑 and Xinxu 新序. The last three chapters quote from Daoist philosophers and other "Masters".
Sun Xingyan's Kongzi jiyu is included in the collectanea Pingjinguan congshu 平津館叢書 and Ershierzi 二十二子, Baizi quanshu 百子全書 and Zishu ershiwu zhong 子書二十五種. In 1936 the collection was published as Kongzi jiyu jijie 孔子集语集解 by the Guangyi shuju 廣益書局 in Shanghai, and in 1989 by the Shanghai guji press 上海古籍出版 as a facsimile edition.

Contents (Xue Ju's 薛據 collection)
1. 易者 Yizhe About the "Book of Changes"
2. 子貢 Zigong Disciple Zigong
3. 孔子御 Kongzi Yu Confucius was sitting in attention
4. 持盈 Chiying Modest and humble
5. 子觀 Ziguan The Master was admiring
6. 公父文伯 Gong Fu Wen Bo Gong Fu Wen Bo
7. 六藝 Liuyi The Six Classical Arts
8. 依賢 Yixian Relying on wisdom
9. 漆雕氏 Qidiao Shi Master Qidiao
10. 楚昭王 Chu Zhaowang King Zhao of Chu
11. 子出衛 Zi Chu Wey The Master left the state of Wei
12. 顏叔子 Yan Shuzi Yan Shuzi
13. 齊侯問 Qi Hou Wen The Questions of the Marquis of Qi
14. 文王 Wenwang King Wen of Zhou
15. 齊桓公 Qi Huangong Duke Huan of Qi
16. 公索氏 Gongsu Shi Gongsun Shi
17. 子夏問 Zixia Wen The questions of disciple Zixia
18. 楚伐陳 Chu Fa Chen Chu attacked Chen
19. 孔子先 Kongzi Xian Confucius earlier
20. 曾子 Zengzi Confucius' disciple Zengzi
Contents (Sun Xingyan's 孫星衍 collection)
1. 勸學 Quanxue Exhortation to study
2. 孝本 Xiaoben The origin of filial piety
3. 五性 Wuxing The five tempers
4.-5. 六藝 Liuyi The Six Classical Arts 1-2
6. 主德 Zhude The virtue of the ruler
7. 臣術 Chenshu The skills of the ministers
8. 交道 Jiaodao The way of social intercourse
9. 論人 Lunren On man
10. 論政 Lunzheng On government
11. 博物 Bowu On the many objects
12-13. 事譜 Shipu Records of affairs 1-2
14. 雜事 Zashi Miscellaneous matters
15. 遺讖 Yichen Other prophesies
16.-17. 寓言 Yuyan Allegories 1-2

Sources: Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文鬰 (ed. 1996), Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 2, p. 1553. ● Sheng Guangzhi 盛廣智 (1996), "Kongzi jiyu 孔子集語", in Feng Kezheng 馮克正, Fu Qingsheng 傅慶升 (eds.), Zhuzi baijia da cidian 諸子百家大辭典 (Shenyang: Liaoning renmin chubanshe), p. 319.

July 24, 2010 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail
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